Unit 1 part 2 infant-toddlers

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Unit 1 part 2 infant-toddlers
2011-04-13 13:45:20

ATI fundamentals
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  1. What type of development/stage did Erickson say was going on from birth to 1 year (infancy)?
    • Development: psychosocial
    • Stage: Trust vs Mistrust
  2. What type of development/stage did Freud say was going on from birth to 1 year (infancy)?
    • Development: Psychosocial
    • Stage: Oral
  3. What type of development/stage did piaget say was goig on from birth to 1 year (infancy)?
    • Development: Cognitive
    • Stage: Sensorimotor
  4. When does the infant's posterior fontanel close?
    2-3 monhs
  5. How does an infant's weight change?
    • The infant gains 1.5 lbs per month the first six months and 0.75 lbs per month the last 6 months.
    • The infant triples in birth weight by the end of the first year
  6. How does an infant's height change?
    • Teh infant grows 2.5 cm (1 in)/month the first 6 months and then
    • 1.25 cm 0.5 in) per month for the last 6 months.
  7. How does an infant's head circumferance change?
    The circumference of hte infant's head increases 1.25 cm (0.5 in) per month for the first 6 months.
  8. When can an infant hold his head up?
    3 months
  9. When can an infant roll over?
    5 - 6 months
  10. Whe can an infant hold her head steady when sitting?
    6 months
  11. When can an infant get to sitting position alone and pull up to standing position?
    9 months
  12. When can an infant sand holding on?
    12 months
  13. When can an infant stand alone?
    12 months
  14. What are som fine motor skills that develop during infancy?
    • Brings hands together
    • Grasps rattle
    • Looks for items that are droped from view
    • Transfers an object from one hand to the other
    • RAkes fingers with hand
    • Uses thumb-finger to grasp items
    • Bangs two toys together
    • Can nest one object inside another
  15. When does an infant transfer an object from one hand to another?
    6 months
  16. When does an infant use thumb-finger to grasp items?
    9 months
  17. When does an infant bang two toys together?
    9 months
  18. When does an infantnest one object nside another?
    12 months
  19. Sensorimotor
    • Characterized by initial refelexes replaced by having voluntary movements that are self-centered on having needs met
    • Involves object permanence, the infant's discrimination between persons and the infant comprehending word meanings
  20. Object permanence
    Teh infant realizes that an object still exists even wehn it is no longer in view (occurs between 6 to 12 months)
  21. Language development in infancy
    • Follows the sensorimotor period
    • Infant responds to noises
    • Vocalizes with "oos" and "aahhs"
    • Laughs and squeals
    • Turns head to the sound of a rattle
    • Pronounces single-syllable words
    • Begins speaking two and then three-word phrases.
  22. Personal-social development in infancy
    • REgards faces
    • Smiles in response to others
    • Regards own hands
    • Works to reach toys
    • Feeds self by eating finger foods
    • Waves goodbye
    • Plays pat-a-cake
    • Drinks from a cup with handles.
  23. When does an infant begin to bond with her parents?
    • Within the first month
    • The process is enhanced when both the infant and the parents are in good health, have positive feeding experiences, and are receiving adequate rest.
  24. Separation anxiety
    • develops the latter half of hte first year.
    • therefore parents should be encouraged not to leave the infant for long periods of time.
  25. Separation Recognition
    Occurs during the first year s the infant learns his physical boundaries form that of other people
  26. Self-concept development in infancy
    By the end of the first year, infants will be able to distinguish themselves as being separate from their parents.
  27. Body-image changes in infancy
    • The infant discovers that his mouth is a pleasure producer
    • Hand and feet are seen as objects of play
    • The infant discovers that smiling causes others to react
  28. Age appropriate activities for infants
    • Rattles
    • Mobiles
    • Teething toys
    • Nesting toys
    • Playing pat-a-cake
    • Playing with balls
    • Reading books.
  29. Feeding alternatives for an infant include:
    • Breastfeeding
    • Iron-fortified formula
    • Cow's milk (not recommended)
  30. When can solids be introduced?
    • When the infant doubles his birth weight (5-6 months)
    • Firt give the infant cereals
    • Next, give the infant pureed or strained foods oneat a time to assess for food allergies
    • Finally, breast milk/forumla should be decreased as intake of solid foods increases.
  31. Weaning
    • Can be accomplished when the infant is able to drink form a cup with handles (somtime after 6 months)
    • One of the infant's feedings is switched to a cup with handles
    • The infant's bedtime feeding is the last to be replaced.
  32. Hyperbilirubinemia
    • Commonly caused by immaturity of the liver and is observed as jaundice
    • Bilirubin levels are assessed, and if elevated are treated with phototherapy. If left untreated, hyperbilirubinemia can cause brain damage
  33. Manifestations of physical neglect in infancy
    • Poor hygiene
    • Failure to demonstrate adequate growth and development
    • Injuries related to insufficient safeguards
  34. Manifestations of emotional abuse/neglect in infancy
    • FAilure to demonstrate adequate G&D
    • poor social interactions
    • Fear of strangers
  35. Manifestations of physical abuse in infancy
    • Bruising
    • Welts
    • Lacerations
    • Burns
    • Fractures
    • Bite marks
    • Fear of parents
    • Lack of reactions
    • Abdominal distention
    • Vomiting
    • Missing hair
  36. Manifestations of sexual abuse in infancy
    • Bruising
    • Bleeding
    • Abrasions around external genitalia, rectum, or mouth
    • STDs
    • UTIs
  37. Dentition
    6-8 teeth erupt in the infant's mouth by the end of the first year
  38. How to care for a teething infant
    • Teething pain can be eased using cold teething rings, ver the counter teeting gels, or acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen
    • Clean the infant's teeth using a wet washcloth
    • Bottles should not be given to infants when they are fallin gasleep
  39. What vaccinations should infants receive at birth?
    Hepatitis B
  40. What immunizations should infants receive at 2 months?
    • Hep B
    • Rotavirus vaccine
    • Diptheria, tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DtaP)
    • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)
    • Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV)
    • Inactivated poliovirus (IPV)
  41. What immunizations should infants receive at 4 months?
    Rota, DTaP, Hib, PCV, IPV
  42. What immunizations should infants receive at six months?
    Hep B (6 to 12 months), Rota, DTaP, PCV, IPV (6 to 18 months)
  43. Diaper rash treatment and prevention
    • Changin the infant's diapers frequently
    • Cleansing the infant's skin with water and dyring throoughly at each change
    • Applying either A&D or zinc oxide ointment to the infant's rash before replacing the diaper
    • Exposing the infant's reddened skin to air during the day when posible
  44. Preventing suffocation in infancy
    • Plastic bags should be avoided
    • A firm crib matteress should fit tight
    • Crib slats should be no further apart than 6 cm
    • No pillows should be allowed in the infant's crib
    • The infant should b eplaced on the back for sleep
    • The infant should never be left alone in the bath
  45. Preventing falls in infancy
    • Rails should be up on the crib
    • use restraints in infant seats
    • Place the seat on the ground or floor if used outside of the car, and do not leave it unattended or on elevated surfacs
    • Use safety gates across stairs
  46. Preventing poisoning in infancy
    • Avoid exposing the infant to lead paint
    • Keep toxins and plants out of the infant's reach
    • Keep safety locks on cabinets with celaners and other household chemicals
    • Keep poison control number near the phone.
    • Keep medications in childproof containers
  47. Preventing burns in infancy
    • Check temp of bath water
    • Turn down the htermostat on hot wtaer ehater
    • Make sure smoke detectors are working at all times
    • Elevate hot objects
    • Use sunscreen during the infant's exposure to the sun
    • Cover electrical outlets
  48. Motor vehicles and infancy
    • Use an approved rearfacing care seat in teh back seat (away from airbags) to transport the infant
    • Infants should be in rear facing car seats for the first year of life and until they weigh 9.1 kg (20 lbs). It is not recommended ot have the infant ride rear-facing until he has reache dthe height and weight limit allowed by the manufacturere of the car seat
  49. Preventing bodily damage in infancy
    Keep sharp objects out of reach and turn diaper pins away from the infant
  50. Dangers in infancy
    • Injury
    • Falls
    • Poisoning
    • Burns
    • Motor vehicles
    • Bodily damage
  51. A 6-month-old infant weighed 3.2 kg (7 lbs) at birth. Currently, at his well infant check-up he weighs 17 lbs. Is this weight normal for his age?
    Yes, this infant has doubled his birth weight by 5-6 months of age
  52. A 6 mo infant's mother states that her infant just started sitting iwth support. LIst several gross motor skills that the nurse would expect the infant to develop over the next few months
    • Rolling over
    • Standing holding on, standing alone
    • Getting to sitting position and sitting alone
  53. One of the personal-social skills that a 6 mo infant demonstrates is reaching to get toys. What activities should the nurse suggest tot he infant's mother to promote personal and social development over the next few months?
    • FEeding self iwth finger foods
    • Waving goodbye
    • Playing pat-a-cake
    • Drinking from a cup with handles
  54. A 6 month old infant says "Dada" and turns to see wherevarious sounds are coming from. What language skills wil the infant develop over the next several months?
    • Pronouncing other single-syllable words
    • Speaking two and then three word phrases
  55. What immunizations should a 6 month old receive if his previous immunizations are current?
    • hep b
    • Rota
    • DTaP
    • IPV
    • PVC
    • TIV
    • yearly flu vaccination
  56. During a well-infant check, the moher of a 9 month old infant states that her infant is easily distraced from breastfeedingand does not seem that interested. What teaching can teh nurse provide?
    The infant may not be ready to drink form a cup with handles. Solids can also be started by offeringcereals first, followed by pureed or strained foods one at a time to asses for food allergies.
  57. What information can a nurse provide to assist a mother to wean her infant?
    • One of the infant's feedings is switched to a cup with handles
    • The infan'ts bedtime feedings is the last oen to be replaced
  58. Cognitive development of the infant includes development of object permanence.This means the infant:
    Realizes that an object continues to exist even though it is no longer in view
  59. What type of development/stage did Erickson say was going on in toddlerhood?
    • Development: psychosocial
    • Stage: Autonomy vs. shame
  60. What type of developmentstage did Freud say was going on in childhood?
    • Development: Psychosocial
    • Stage: Anal
  61. What type of development did Piaget say was going on in childhood?
    • Development: cognitive
    • Stage: Sensorimotor transitions to preoperational
  62. When does a toddler's anterior fontanel close?
    by 18 moths of age
  63. How does a toddler's weight change?
    At 30 months the toddler should weigh 4 times his birth weight
  64. How does a toddler's height change?
    The toddler grows by 7.5 cm (3 cm) per year
  65. What developmental skills does a toddler achieve?
    • Development of steady gait
    • Climbing stairs
    • Jumping and standing on one foot for short periods
    • Stacking blocks in increasingy higher numbers
    • Drawing stick figures
    • Undressing and feeding self
    • Toilet training
  66. What cognitive development takes place in toddlerhood?
    • The concept of object permanence is fully developed
    • Toddlers demonstrate memory of events that relate to them
    • Language inreases to about 400 words with the toddler speaking in 2 to 3 word phrases
    • Preoperational thought does nto allow for the toddler to understand other viewpoints, but it does allow toddlers to symbolize objects and people in orde to imitate activities they have seen previously
  67. What Psychosocial Development takes place during toddlerhood?
    • Independence is paramount for the toddler who is attempting to do everything for himself
    • Separation anxiety continues to occur when a parent leaves the child
  68. What moral development takes place when the child is a toddler?
    • Moral development is closely associate dwith cognitive development
    • Egocentric: Toddlers are unable to see another's perspective, they only see thier own point of view
    • The toddler's punishment and obedience orientation begins with a sens that good behavior is rewarded and bad behavior is punished
  69. Self-concept development in toddlerhood
    Toddlers progressively see themselves as separate from their parents and increase their explorations away from them
  70. Body-image changes in toddlerhood
    • The toddler appreciates the usefulness of various body parts
    • Toddlers develop gender identity by age 3
  71. Age apprpriate activities for toddles
    • Solitary play evolves into parallel play where the toddler observes other children and then may engage in activities nearby
    • Filling and emptying containers
    • Playing with blocks
    • REadingbooks
    • Playing with toys tht can be pushed and pulled
    • Tossing a ball
  72. Nutrition for toddlers
    • Toddlers are picky eaters with repeated requests for favorite foods
    • The toddler should be switched to 3 or 4 glasses of cow's milk a day, and serving sizes should be kept small to avoid overwhelming the toddler
  73. Risks for toddlers
    • Child abuse
    • Upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media
    • Drowning
    • Falls
    • Suffocation
    • Poisening
    • burns
    • Motor vehicles
  74. How are toddlers with upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media treated?
    • Acetaminophen and cool mist vaporizers may be useful
    • Antibiotics or decongestants may be prescribed by a primary care provider
  75. Tempter tantrums with toddlers
    result when a toddler is frustrated with restrictions on his independence. Providing consistent, age-appropriate expectations help the toddler work through his frustration
  76. When should toilet training begin?
    Can begin when it is recognized that the child has the sensation of needing to urinate or defecate. Parents should demonstrate patience and consistency to toilet training their child. Nighttime control may develop last of all.
  77. What immunizations should a child receive at 12-15 months?
    • Hib
    • PCV
    • IPV(16-18 months)
    • MMR
    • varicella
  78. What immunizations should a child receive at 12-23 months?
    Hep A given at 2 doses at least 6 months apart
  79. What immunizations should a child receive at 15-18 months?
  80. What immunizations should a child receive at 12-36 months?
    Yearly trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine TIV
  81. How to prevent drowning in toddlerhood
    • Do not leave the toddler unattended in teh bathtub
    • Keep toilet lids closed
    • Clsoely supervise the child at the pool or any other body of water
  82. How to prevent falls in toddlerhood
    • Keep doors and windows locked
    • Keep crib mattress in the lowest position with the rails all the way up
    • Use safety gates across stairs
  83. How to prevent suffocation in toddlerhood
    • Keep toys with small parts out of reach.
    • Make sure food items are cut into small pieces and are without seeds, small bones, nuts, or popcorn
    • Remove drawstrings from jackets and other clothing
  84. How to prevent poisoning in toddlerhood?
    • Avoid exposing the toddler to lead paint, elevatetoxinsd and plants, place safety locks on cabinets with cleaners and other chemicals
    • Keep poison control number near the pohone
    • Keep meds in childproof containers
  85. Toddlers and car seats
    Toddlers should be in rear-facing car seats for the first yar of life and until they weight 9.1 kg (20 lbs) it is recommende dto have th toddler ride rear-facing unti lhe has reached the height and weight limit allowed by the manufacturer of the car seat.
  86. How to prevent bodily damage to toddlers
    • Educate the toddler regarding whatto do when he is approhced by a stranger
    • Teach toddlers to avoid unknown animals
  87. A nurse is teaching a class on accident prevention to a group of parents with toddlers. Which of the following strategies should the nurse teach the paretns to implement to prevent accidents?
    Keep toxic agents out of reach
    Keep sharp objects out of reach
    Keep toilet seat up
    Turn pot handle toward the back of the stove
    Place safety gates across stiarways
    Raise setting on hot wate rheater
    Place fences around swimming pools
    • Keep toxic agents out of reach
    • Keep sharp objects out of reach
    • Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove
    • Place safety gates across stairways
    • Place fences around swimming pools
  88. Wha immunizations should a toddler receive between the ages of 12 months and 3 years?
    • DTaP
    • HiB
    • PBC
    • IPV
    • MMR
    • Varicella
    • Hep A
    • yearling influenza
  89. Describe what a nurse should expect to observe when watching 18 month old children play in a daycare facility?
    The children will engage in solitary play initially taht will eventually evolve into parallel play. The toddler will observe other children and engage in activities nearby
  90. What developmental accomplishments make accidents prevalent among toddlers?
    • Independence and desire to try things alone
    • Waiting to explore more away from parents
    • Walking well
    • Ability to climb
  91. Effective discipline of a toddler includes
    A: Consistent enforcement of well-defined boundaries or limits
    B: punishment for poor behavior
    C: Allowing the child to learn teh majority of the time by trial and error
    D: Consistently rewarding only good behavior
    A: Consistent enforcement fo well-defined boundaries or limits
  92. A 20 month old child is being discharged from the hospital. Which of the following potential health risks should be addessed with the parents? select all that apply.
    Cholesterol screening for cardiovascular disease
    Peer pressure
    • Poisening
    • Burns
    • Falls
  93. A monther of a 2-year old child states that her chld has temper tantrums. The child says "no" every time the mother tries to help her. The nurse explains that developmentally, the toddleris
    A. Trying to increase her indepedence
    B. manifesting an anger problem
    C. Attempting ot finish a project she set out to do
    D. Developing a sense of trust
    A. Trying to increase her indepdendence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)