Nutrition 2

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sojialiu
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79368
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Nutrition 2
Updated:
2011-04-14 13:49:53
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Nutrition
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Nutrition 2
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  1. Risk of Cholesterol
    Desirable: below
    Borderline high:
    High: above
    • Desirable: below 200 mg/dl
    • Borderline high: 200 to 239 mg/dl
    • High: above 240 mg/dl
  2. Fat-soluble vitamins
    examples
    • These are vitamins that are only soluble in fat
    • but not water.
    • A, D, E, and K
  3. Water-soluble vitamins
    example
    • Not stored in body
    • C and B complex
  4. Vitamin A
    Source
    Function
    • Fish liver oils, Yellow vegetables, Yellow fruits, Egg Yolk, Whole milk
    • Regenerates Visual purple necessary for good vision
    • Formation of bones and teeth
    • maintains skin and mucous membranes
  5. Vitamin A
    Deficiency Symptoms
    • Night blindness
    • Retardation of skeletal growth
    • Dry, Scaly skin
    • Dry mucous membranes
    • Susceptibility to epithelial infection
    • Xerophthalmia (corneal cells become opaque, slough off can lead to blindness
  6. Vitamin D
    Source
    Function
    • Sunshine, Fish liver oils, Fortified milk
    • Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption and metabolism
    • Essential for normal formation of bones and teeth
  7. Vitamin D Deficiency
    • Lowered levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood
    • Rickets
    • Soft bones
    • malformed teeth
  8. Vitamin E
    Source
    Function
    • Wheat germ, Vegetable oils, Dark-green, leafy vegetable
    • Preserves integrity of RBCs
    • Antioxidant (protects materials that oxidize easily)
    • Protect function and structure of the muscle
  9. Vitamin E
    • Increased hemolysis (breakdown) of RBC
    • Anemia
    • Breakdown of vitamin A and essential fatty acid
  10. Vitamin K
    Source
    Function
    • Synthesis by intestinal bacteria , Green, leafy vegetables, Pork liver
    • Formation of prothrombin necessary in blood clothing
  11. Vitamin K
    Deficiency
    • Prolonged clothing time leading to bleeding tendencies
    • Hemorrhagic diseases
  12. Vitamin C
    Sources
    Function
    • Citrus fruits, Tomatoes, Broccoli, Green peppers Strawberries, Cantaloupes, Potatoes
    • Formation and maintenance of capillary walls and Collagen formation
    • Aids in absorption of iron
  13. Vitamin C Deficiency
    • Scurvy (deficiency disease)
    • Tendency to bruise easily
    • Poor wound healing
    • Anemia
    • sore gums
  14. Vitamin B1
    Sources
    Function
    • Wheat germ, Whole or enriched grains, Legumes
    • Pork and organ meats
    • Maintains carbohydrate metabolism
    • Maintains muscle and nerve functioning
    • Maintain appetite
  15. Vitamin B2
    Deficiency
    • Sensitivity to light, dim vision
    • Inflammation of lips and tongue
    • Cheilosis
    • Loss of appetite and weight
  16. Vitamin B6
    Sources
    Functions
    • Red meats (especially organ meats), Whole grain cereals, Pork, Lamb, Veal
    • Synthesis and metabolism of proteins
    • Hemoglobin synthesis
    • Maintenance of muscles and nerves
  17. Vitamin B6
    Deficiency
    • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, anemia
    • Irritability, CNS dysfunction, kidney stones
    • Dermatitis, INH can cause deficiency
  18. Vitamin B12
    Sources
    Function
    • Found only in animal products
    • Protein metabolism
    • Production of RBC’s
    • Nervous system function
  19. Vitamin B12
    Deficiency
    Pernicious anemia (resulting from lack of intrinsic Factor needed for vitamin B12 absorption)
  20. Niacin (nicotinic acid)
    Sources
    Function
    • Meats especially organ meat, Poultry and fish, Peanut butter
    • Essential for normal functioning of digestive
    • and nervous systems
    • Essential for growth and metabolism
  21. Niacin (nicotinic acid) Deficiency
    • Pellagra (deficiency diseases)
    • Nervous disorders
    • Diarrhea and nausea
    • Dermatitis
  22. Folic acid (folacin) Functions
    • Essential in formation of all body cells, especially RBC’s
    • Protein metabolism
  23. Folic acid (folacin) Deficiency
    • Anemia (macrocytic)
    • Gastrointestinal disturbances
    • Glossitis
    • Stomatitis
  24. Sodium (Na)
    Function
    Sources
    Salt, Baking powder and soda, Dairy products, Meat, fish and poultry, Range of 500 to 2400 mg daily

    • Regulation of acid base balance
    • Fluid balance
    • Nerve transmission and muscle contraction
    • Glucose
    • absorption
  25. Sodium (Na) Deficiency
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Apathy
    • Exhaustion
    • Abdominal and muscle cramps
  26. CALCIUM
    Sources
    Function
    • Milk and milk products

    • Cheese

    • Some green, leafy vegetables (turnips, collards,kale, broccoli)

    • Bone and tooth formation

    • Blood clotting

    • Muscle (including heart muscle) contraction

    • Nerve transmission

    • Cell wall permeability

  27. CALCIUM
    Deficiency
    • Poor bone and tooth formation
    • Rickets (deficiency disease)
    • Stunted growth
    • Osteoporosis
    • Poor blood clotting
    • Tetany
  28. Phosphorous
    Sources
    Function
    • Milk and cheese
    • Meat
    • Egg yolk
    • Whole grains (diet adequate in protein and Ca should be adequate in P)
    • Functions as calcium phosphate in the calcification of teeth and bones
    • Energy metabolism
    • Regulation of acid base balance
    • Cell structure and enzyme activity
  29. Phosphorous
    (P): Deficiency
    • Poor bone and tooth formation
    • Rickets (deficiency disease)
    • Retarded growth
    • Weakness
    • anorexia
  30. Potassium (K)
    Sources
    Functions
    • Meat fish and poultry
    • Whole grain breads and cereals
    • Fruits (oranges, bananas)
    • Green leafy vegetables
    • Regulates nerve conduction and muscle
    • contraction
    • Necessary for regular heart rhythm
    • Fluid and acid base balance
    • Cell metabolism
    • Deficiency
  31. Potassium (K) deficiency
    • Abnormal heart beat

    • Muscle weakness

    • Nausea and vomiting

    • Deficiency results from dieresis

  32. Chlorine
    Sources
    Function
    • Table salt (NaCl)
    • Formation of hydrochloric acid and maintenance
    • of gastric acidity
    • Maintenance of acid base balance, osmotic
    • pressure and water balance
  33. Magnesium (Mg)
    Source
    Function
    • Green leafy vegetables
    • Legumes
    • Milk
    • Whole grains
    • Component of bones and teeth
    • Enzymes essential in general metabolism
    • Conduction of nerve impulses
    • Muscle contraction
  34. Magnesium (Mg)
    Deficiency
    Tremors leading to convulsive seizures
  35. Sulfur (S)
    Sources
    Functions
    Protein foods, Meat, Milk, Eggs, Cheese, Nuts and legumes
  36. Iron (Fe+) Absorption enhanced by
    vitamin c
  37. Iron (Fe+)
    sources
    function
    • Organ meats especially liver
    • Egg yolk
    • Green leafy vegetables
    • Lean red meats
    • Dried fruits (apricots, raisins)
    • Synthesis of hemoglobin
    • General metabolic activities
  38. Iron(Fe+) Deficiency
    Anemia
  39. Iodine
    source
    function
    • Iodized salt , Saltwater fish
    • Normal functioning of thyroid gland
  40. Zinc (Zn)
    Sources
    Function
    • Oysters, Liver, High protein foods
    • Assists in regulation of cell growth
    • Protein synthesis
  41. Zinc (Zn) Deficiency
    • Impaired wound healing
    • Poor taste sensitivity
    • Retarded sexual and physical development
  42. Copper(Cu)
    source
    function
    • Liver, Cocoa, Nuts, Raisins
    • Aids in absorption of Iron
    • Component of hemoglobin
    • Component of enzymes


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