unit 1 part 3 preschooler-schoolage

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unit 1 part 3 preschooler-schoolage
2011-04-13 23:43:22
ati fundamentals

ati fundamentals
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  1. What type of development/stage did Erikson say was going on in the preschool years?
    • development: psychosocial
    • stage: initiative vs. guit
  2. What type of development/stage did fredu say was going on on the preschool years?
    • Development: psychosocial
    • Stage: Phallic
  3. What type of development/stage did piaget say was going on in the preschool years?
    • Development: cognitive
    • stage: preoperational
  4. What ages do the "preschool years" cover?
    ages 3-5
  5. Weight change in the preschool years
    The preschooler should gaint about 2.25 kg (5 lbs) per year
  6. What heigh changes occur for preschoolers
    The preschooler should grow 6.2 to 7.5 c (2.5 to 3 in) per year
  7. Developmental skills typically acquired by the preschooler
    • Alternating feet on stairs
    • Going upand down steps easily
    • Hopping
    • Walking heel-to-toe
    • Dressing without help
    • Drawing copies of shapes on paper
    • Drawing a more detailed stick figure
    • Playing on playground equipment
  8. What do the 2 phases of preoperational thinking include?
    • Preconceptional: preschoolers make judgements based on visual appearances
    • Intuitive thought: begin around age 4, preschooler can classify information and become aware of cause and effect relationships
  9. Preschoolers' development of language
    The preschooler's vocabulary continues to increase. The preschooler can now speak in sentences, is able to identify colors, and enjoys tlaking
  10. Preschooler's understanding of time
    The preschooler begins to understand the concept sof the past, present, and future. By the end of the preschool years, the child may comprehend days of the week.
  11. Psychosocial development of a preschooler
    A preschooler may take on many new experiences despite not having all of the physical abilitie necessary to be successful at everything. Guilt may occur when children are unable to accomplish a task and believe they have misbehaved. Guiding preschoolers to attmept activites wihtin their capabilities while setting limits is appropriate
  12. Moral development of preschoolers
    Preschoolers continue in the good/bad orientation of the oddler years ut begin to understand behaviors in terms of what is socially acceptable
  13. Self-concept development of a preschooler
    • The preschooler feels good about self with regard to mastering skill ssuch as dressing and feeding that allow independence.
    • During stress, insecurity, or illness, a preschooler may regress to previous immature behaviors or develop habits such as nail biting or nose picking
  14. Body image changes of preschoolers
    • Mistaken perceptions of reality coupled with misconceptions in thinking lead to active fantasies and fears. The greatest fear is bodily harm
    • Sex-role identification is also occuring
  15. Age appropriate activities for preschoolers
    • Parallel play hifts to associative play during the preschool years. Play is not highly organized, but cooperation dos exist between children. Appropriate activities include-
    • Playing ball
    • Putting puzzles together
    • Riding tricycles
    • Pretend and dress-up activities
    • Role play
    • Paintin
    • Sewing cards nd beads
    • Reading books
  16. Nutrition for preschoolers
    • A preschooler consumes about half the amount of an adult (1,800kcal)
    • Preschoolers may continue to be picky eaters up to age 5
    • Parents need to ensure that their child is receiving a balance of nutrients
  17. What to advise parents to do concerning sleep disturbances of preschoolers
    • Assess whether or not the bedtime is too early or if the child is still taking a nap. The average preschooler requires around 12 hrs of sleep a day. Some preschoolers still require a daytime nap.
    • Keep a consisstent bedtime routine
    • Try using a night light
    • Reassure the chil who has been frightened, but avoid having the child sleep with the parents
  18. Vision screening of preschoolers
    routinely done in the preschool population as part of the prekindergarten physical exam. Myopia and amblyopia can be detected an treated before poor visual acuity impairs the learning environment.
  19. Immunizations for preschool age children (3-5 years):
    • 4-6years:
    • DTaP
    • IPV
    • MMR
    • varicella
    • yearly TIV for preschoolers 36-59 months
  20. Car-seats and preschoolers
    • Preschool children should be in car seats appropriate for weight and height.
    • The child should e restrained in a car seat or booster chair until seat belts fit cforrectly. Laws may vary from state to state and requirements may be up to 36.3 kg (80 lbs) and height of 4 feet 9 inches
  21. What developmental tasks should a preschooler currently be doing to indicate that his growth and development is appropriate for his age? (saa)
    He shows a good understanding of time
    He is able to perform the heel0to-toe walk
    He is able to op
    He demonstrates good coordination
    He can draw copies of shapes on paper
    He speas in sentences
    • He is able to perform the heel-to-toe walk
    • he is able to hop
    • He can draw copies of shapes on paper
    • He speaks in sentences
  22. What type of play is normal for a 3 year old?
    parallel play
  23. Which of the following developmental tasks should be achieved during the preschool years?
    A. Sitting up alone
    B. Following several directions at once
    C. Comprehending satire
    D. Dressing independently
    D. Dressing independently
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. According to Erikson, what type of development/stage is occuring during the school-ages?
    • development: psychosocial
    • Stage: industry vs inferiority
  25. What type of development/stage did freud say was occuring during middle childhood?
    • development: psychosocial
    • stage: latency
  26. What type of development/stage did Piaget think was taking plac during school-age?
    • Development: Cognitive
    • Stage: Concrete operations
  27. What changes in weight to school age children experience?
    The school-age child will gain 2 to 4 kg (8.8 lbs) per year
  28. What changes in height do school age children experience?
    The school-age child will grow by about 2 in per year
  29. What ages are included in the school age period?
    Ages 5-12
  30. What changes r/t puberty do school-age females experience?
    • Budding of breasts
    • Appearance of public hair
    • Menarche
  31. What changes r/t puberty begin to appear in school age males?
    • Enlargement of testicles wiht changes in scrotum, such as increased looseness
    • Appearance of pubic hair
  32. Other than puberty what other physical changes occur in school-aged children?
    • Permanent teeth erupt
    • Coordination improves
    • Visual acuity improves to 20/30
  33. What cognitive development occurs in school-aged children?
    • Concrete thought which includes the following:
    • Weight and volume are seen as unchanging
    • Is able to understand simple analogies
    • Is able to undestand time (days, easons, etc.)
    • Can define many wrds and understand rules of grammar
    • Classifies morecomplex inormation
    • Is able to understand various emtotions people experience
  34. Psychosocial development that occurs in school-aged children
    • A sense of industry is achieved through achievements in learning
    • Children at this age prefer the company of same-sex companions
    • Most relationships come from school associations
    • Children at this age may rival teh same-sex parent
    • Fears of ridicule by peers and teachers over school related issues are common. Some children manifest nerous behaviors to deal witht the stress such as nail biting
  35. Moral Development in school-aged children
    • Early on, the school-age child may not understand the reasoning behind many rules and may try to find ways around them. Instrumental exchange is in place - "I'll help you if you help me." The child is out to make the best deal, and she does not really consider elements of loyalty, tratitude,or justice as she makes her decisions.
    • In the later part of the school years, the child moves into a law-and-order orientation with more emphsis placed on justice being administered fairly.
  36. Self-concept development in school-aged children
    • School-age children strive to develop a healthy self-respec through finding out in what areas they excel
    • School-age chldren need parents to encourage them regarding educational or extracurricular successes
  37. Body-image changes in school-aged children
    • This is the age at which solidification of body imge occurs
    • Curiosity about sexuality should be addressed with educaiton regarding sexual development and the reproduction process
    • School-age children are more modest and place more emphasis on privacy issues than preschoolers
  38. Age-appropriate Activities for school-aged children: 6-9 year olds
    • Competitive and cooperative play is predominant
    • Play simple board and number games
    • Hopscotch
    • Jump rope
    • Collect rocks, stamps, cards, or coins
    • Ride bicycles
    • Build simple models
    • Join organized sports - skill building
  39. Age-appropriate activities for school-aged children 9-12 year olds
    • Competative and cooperative play is predominant
    • Make crafts
    • Build models
    • Collect/engage in hobbies
    • Solve jigsaw puzzles
    • Play board and card games
    • Join organized competitive sports
  40. Nutrition for school aged children
    By the end of hte school-age years, teh child is eating an adult proportion of food. He needs quality nutritious snacks
  41. Scoliosis :(
    School-aged children should be screened for scoliosis by examining for a lateral curvature of thespine before and during growth spurts. Screening ma take place at schools or at a ehatlh provider's office.
  42. Obesity
    An increasing concern of school-aged children that predisposes them to low self-esteem, diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
  43. Advice to give parents to pevent/combat obesity
    • Don't use food as a reward
    • Emphasize physical activity
    • Make sure a blanced diet is consumed
    • Avoid frequent meals eaten in fast food restuarants
  44. What is the second leading cause of death in children?
    Cancers such as leukemia
  45. True or false: respiratory infections are still common among school-aged children
  46. What disease/condition accounts for many school absences among school-aged children?
  47. Immunization recommendations for school aged children ages 5-12
    • If not given between teh ages of 4 to 5, then by age 6:
    • DTaP
    • IPV
    • MMR
    • Varicella
  48. What should be stressed in terms of injury prevention for school-aged children?
    • Fracture prevention - wear protective gear when participating in sports
    • Avoid trampolines
    • Teach children to swim
    • Teach fire safety
    • Keep firearms locked up.
    • Motor vehicles safety
  49. Motor vehicles and school-aged children
    • The child should be restrained in a car seat or booster chair until adult seat belts fit corfrectly.
    • Laws may vary from state to state and requirments may be up to 80 lbs and a height of 4 feet 9 inches.
    • Children less than 13 years of age are safest in the back seat
  50. A 10-year old boy has been gaining weight without a proportional gain in height. His parents are concerned and talking to the school nurse.
    What questions should be asked of the child's parents?
    • Describe what a typical day is like for your child
    • What does your child typically eat at meals?
    • Does your child snak in between meals, and what type of snacks does he consume?
  51. A 10-year old boy has been gaining weight without a proportional gain in height. His parents are concerned and talking to the school nurse.
    Should the school nurse considerthe child's weight gain normal?
    Yes. If the child eats nutritious foods, does not consume many empty calories, and i active, this may be the normal weight gain experienced by 10-12 year old children
  52. A 10-year old boy has been gaining weight without a proportional gain in height. His parents are concerned and talking to the school nurse.
    What information should the nurse share with the child's parents?
    The weight gain can e hormonal and precede a growth spurt (height) surrounding puberty. Additionally, the child's metabolic rate will increase during the adolescent years, and he will require additional nutrients, so limiting intake at this time may not be warranted
  53. What sequences of changes will girls experience with the onset of puberty?
    • Budding of breasts
    • Pubic hair appears
    • Menarche
  54. An 8-year-old boy with a fractured femur is hospitalized in a two-bed room. With which of the following roommates should the boy share a room?
    A. A 14 year old boy with colitis
    B. A 9 year old boy with an appendectomy
    C. A 10year old girl with cancer
    D. A 6 year old girl with asthma
    B. A 9 year old boy with an appendectomy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Which of the following behaviors by a school-age child demonstrates appropriate psychosocial development?
    A. Endeavoring to spend more time with friends than with family
    B. Bringing home a good grade on a ath test and showing parents
    C. seekingout a parent when feeling hungry
    D. Attempting to pour a glass of milk from a full gallon without assistance
    B. Bringing home a good grade on a math test and showing parents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)