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2011-04-13 16:04:17
ASBOG Study Guide Chap Nine

ASBOG Study Guide Chapter 9 - Water Quality and Groundwater contamination
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  1. Adsorption
    The attraction and adhesion of ions or molecules in sloution onto the surface of a solid
  2. Advection
    The process by which solutes are transported by flowing ground water
  3. Diffusion
    The process of movement of solutes from areas of higher concentrations to ares of lower concentrations
  4. Dispersion
    The spreading and mixing of a solute in ground water because water containing the solute is traveling at a differernt velocity than the ground water.
  5. Effluent
    Liquid waste discharged to the environment from a treatment or manufacturing facility
  6. Equivalent Weight
    The formula atomic weight of a dissolved ionic species divided by the electrical charge
  7. Hardness
    A property of water in which evaporation produces a scale and in combination with soap produces an insoluble residue. Caused by the calcium and magnesium ions
  8. Hardpan
    A hard, impervious near surface soil layer, usually in clayey soils, formed by cementation from the precipitation of insoluble materials such as silica, iron oxide, calcium carbonate and organic mater
  9. Infiltration
    The downwar flow of water from the surface into and through soils and porous rock
  10. Leachate
    Water that has percolated through solid waste and has accumlated a high amount of dissolved solids
  11. Maximum Containment Level (MCL)
    The meaximum levle of containments permitted in water which enters the distribution system of a public water system. MCLs are enforceable standars and are based on health risks
  12. Miliequivalent per liter
    A measure of the chemical equivalence of the concentration of all solutes present in solution. The units are obtained by dividing the concentration (in mg/l) by the equivalent weight
  13. PicoCuries per Liter (pCi/l)
    A unit of radioactive decay rate; the quantity of radioactive material producing 2.22 nuclear transformations per minute
  14. Reference Dose
    A scientific estimate of a daily exposure lelve that is not expected to cause adverse health effects in humans
  15. Retardation
    The reduction of overall solute flow relative to the ground water due to adsorption
  16. Secondary Maximum Containment Levels
    The maximum levles of constituents in water at the point of delivery to the consumer that affect the taste, odor, or appearance of drinking water. Federal standards are nonenforceable
  17. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)
    The ratio of sodium to calcium that indicates how much calcium in the soil has been replaced by sodium
  18. Sorption
    Processes that act to remove solutes from ground water
  19. Tracers
    Elements or compounds used to determine the flow driection or course of the groundwater.
  20. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
    The total amount of minerals dissolved in water; the sum of the chemical consitutents in mg/l for water that contains more than 1000 mg/l dissolve minerals