20th Century Exam 1
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- James Ensor
- The Entry of Christ into Brussels in 1889
- 1889. Symbolism/Expressionism.
Ensor has this thing for masks. Christ seems to be almost an afterthought here, way in the back. Suggests people have become more focused on themselves and have forgotten god.
- Edvard Munch
- The Scream
- 1893. Symbolism/Expressionism.
- Oil and tempera on board.
Has become a symbol of modern anxiety and alienation. Based on an experience of Munch's - walking across a bridge with friends he "felt a great, infinite scream pass through nature". Influences from Gauguin and the Nabis.
- Constantin Brancusi
- Sleeping Muse I
- 1909-10. Marble.
Concrete forms into basic essence. Indistinct features, fragmentary. Also sort of "pillows" the figure.
- Henri Matisse
- The Open Window
- 1905. Fauvism.
Matisse's own view out his window. Shows Mediterranean and South-African roots. To leave empty areas of canvas at this time was considered taboo.
- The Joy of Life
- 1905-6. Fauvism.
- Blue Nude: Memory of Biskra
- 1907. Fauvism.
Biskra = in Algeria. Inspired by a small African statuette from the Rue de Rennes.
- Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
- Street, Dresden
- 1908. Die Brücke/German Expressionsim.
The street was a major source of painting themes for Die Brucke. The urban for Kirchner was alienating, distancing. As opposed to the lighthearted Impressionist approach. Shocking pink from the Fauvs, but here more disturbing than calming. Ghostly hand- symbolic of dangers of syphillis? Sense of claustrophobia, vertigo
- Wassily Kandinsky
- Composition VII
- 1913. Der Blaue Reiter/German Expressionism.
Kandinsky's work - compositions = synthesis of external and internal stimuli.
- Pablo Picasso
- Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
- 1907. Expressionism/proto-cubism.
Representative of women of the streets of Avignon. Shock value. Back and foreground sort of switched; space is distorted. Women also show progression in historical sculpture - archaic, classicized, african masks.
- George Braque
- Violin and Palette
- 1909. Analytic Cubism.
First fully-realized cubist painting. Collaborating with Picasso at this point. Simultaneity = an object can exist in multiple perspectives at once.
- Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
- 1910. Analytic Cubism.
Linear works that suggest a face, rather than naturallistically depict it. Seems to almost dissolve. Still very austere - uses triangular composition.
- Still Life with Chair Caning
- 1912. Synthetic Cubism.
Marks the start of synthetic cubism. Representative of glass-topped coffee table. Cafe life, day to day. "Jou" = journal, but also means "to play". Painting = "playing" with representation.
- Umberto Boccioni
- The City Rises
- 1910. Futurism.
Saw as a visual analog to Futurist Manifesto. "A great synthesis of light, labor, and movement". Idea = vision of a city in change (scaffolding on buildings)
- Development of a Bottle in Space
- 1912. Futurism.
- Carlo Carrà
- Patriotic Celebration (Free-Word Painting),
- 1914. Pasted paper and newsprint on cloth. Futurism.
- Kazimir Malevich
- Suprematist Composition: White Square on White, 1918. Suprematism.
- Vladimir Tatlin
- Monument to the Third International, 1919-20. Wood, iron, and glass. Constructivism.
- Aleksandr Rodchenko
- Hanging Construction
- 1920. Constructivism.
- El Lissitzky
- The Constructor (Self-Portrait)
- 1924. Gelatin Silver print.
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