Cardiac Tests

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
79409
Filename:
Cardiac Tests
Updated:
2011-04-13 17:04:45
Tags:
Cardiac Enzymes
Folders:

Description:
Cardiac Enzymes
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Total CK
    38-120 ng/mL
  2. CK-MB
    0-3 ng/mL
  3. TCK:CK-MB
    relative index:
    <2.5-3
  4. CK-index
    0-3
  5. Troponin
    <0.4 ng/mL
  6. This blood test is considered the most accurate to see if a heart attack has occurred and how much damage it did to the heart.
    Troponin
  7. Can be detected a w/in a few hours ( approx 6 hrs) of
    myocardial injury. Peaks between 1st & 2nd day
    after injury & can remain elevated for as long as 3 weeks
    Troponin
  8. What does the TCK – CK-MB relative index result mean?
    If the value of CK-MB is elevated and the ratio of CK–MB to total CK (relative index) is more than 2.5–3, it is likely that the heart was damaged. A high CK with a relative index below this value suggests that skeletal muscles were damaged.
  9. a heme protein that helps to transport O2. Found in cardiac & skeletal muscle. Starts to increase w/in 1-3 hrs of injury & peaks w.in 12 hrs after onset of S&S. Not specific to an acute cardiac event. Negative results assist in R/O AMI
    Myoglobin
  10. This test is usually performed along with cardiac catheterization. A dye that can be seen by using x ray is injected through the catheter into the coronary
    arteries. Your doctor can see the flow of blood through the heart and see where there are blockages.
    Coronary angiography
  11. Elevation of ST segment in more than 2 contiguous leads
    is key to diagnosing STEMI
  12. EKG chgs of ischemia (ST depression) & injury (ST elevation) may also be evident as MI size & depth increases until stopped
  13. Antidote: Amicar ( aminocarproic acid)
    For T-PA – Toxicity & OD
  14. Goals for MI include:
    • –The immediate and appropriate treatment & relief of chest
    • pain

    –Absence of respiratory distress

    –Attain/maintain adequate tissue perfusion

    –Reduce anxiety

    –Awareness of the disease process

    –Understanding of prescribed care

    –Adherence to the self-care program – see Chart 28-11, p. 777

    –Absence of complications
  15. –Inability of the heart to pump sufficient oxygenated
    blood to meet body tissue’s demand
    CHF
  16. Normal ejection fraction
    55-65%
  17. •Systolic failure – most common
    –Weakened heart muscle due to infarction

    –Unable to pump needed volume

    –LV dilates
  18. •Diastolic failure – less common
    –Stiff, noncompliant ventricle–Reduces filling & volume pumped out
  19. Stages of CHF
    • • I - no effect on
    • adl; good prognosis

    • •II – slight limit on adls, S&S with increased physical activity, basilar rales & S3 possible;
    • good prognosis

    •III – Marked limits on adls, comfortable at rest but ordinary activity causes s&s; fair prognosis

    • •IV – S&S of cardiac insufficiency at rest; poor
    • prognosis
  20. RVF:
    • congestion in peripheral tissues & visceria predominates; JVD & HJR;
    • perpherial edema (dependent);
    • ascities;
    • anorexia, N&V;
    • weakness;
    • weight gain;
    • RUQ discomfort & hepatomegaly;
    • respiratory distress;
  21. LVF:
    S&S areprogressive: dyspnea, dry, hacking cough [may become productive as congestionincreases; frothy pink sputum = pulmonary edema], bibasilarpulmonary crackles (early) – do not clear with coughing ,low O2 sat, S3,orthopnea or Paroysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), difficulty sleeping, nocturia,tachycardia/paplitations, cold & clammy skin, weak & thready pulse,fatigue
  22. •DYSPNEA

    •DRY COUGH

    •CRACKLES

    •WHEEZES

    •ORTHOPNEA

    •HEMOPTYSIS

    •“Paroxysmal” NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA

    •CHEYNE-STOKES RESPIRTIONS

    •FATIQUE

    •WEAKNESS

    •CYANOSIS

    •NOCTURIA

    •TACHYCARDIA

    •Serious:
    life threatening

    •Pulmonary
    Edema
    Left sided HF
  23. •JUGULAR
    VEIN DISTENSION

    •DEPENDENT
    PERIPHERAL EDEMA

    •ASCITES

    •WEIGHT
    GAIN

    •FATIGUE

    •WEAKNESS

    •SPLENOMEGALY

    •HEPATOMEGALY

    •GI
    DISCOMFORT

    •NOCTURIA

    •TACHYCARDIA
    Right sided HF
  24. ACUTE HF
    •RAPID RESPIRATIONS

    •SEVERE DYSPNEA

    •CRACKLES/WHEEZE

    •COUGHING

    •FROTHY SPUTUM

    •ANXIOUS/RESTLESS

    •CLAMMY SKIN/COOL
  25. CHRONIC CHF
    S/S INFLUENCED BY PATIENTS
    •AGE

    •UNDERLYING CAUSE

    •VENTRICLE THAT IS FAILING
  26. dig toxicity
    • grn-yellow halos around
    • objects/lights, n/v/anorexia
  27. carvedilol or Coreg is often the beta
    blocker of choice for CHF
  28. Patient Teaching for CHF
    OXYGEN main )2 sat 92% or>& raise HOB

    • REST AND ACTIVITY:space activities out
    • throughout the day. Don’t
    • lift more than 10lbs.

    POSITIONING q 2 hrs

    FLUID RETENTION?

    • MEDICATIONS: may be
    • on other meds, Ca channel blockers, or
    • Coumadin prvnt clots

    • LOW SODIUM DIET:
    • 2gm./day sodium AND WEIGHT REDUCTION

    Diet: eat small frequent meals (6 meals/day)

    COPING ?

    • I & O: avoid
    • fluid intake above 1.5-2L/day

    • Weight: best
    • measurement of fluid status or loss !(esp


    11 / 28
  29. CHF interventions
    •Digoxin – improves efficiency slows HR & improves contraction

    • • Diuretics – elimininate fluid excess to
    • reduce workload on herat


    •Oxygen – improves oxygen available

    • •Sit up/legs dangle – allows for lung expansion and pooling of blood in legs
    • decreasing venous return & reducing workload of heart


    • Get ABGs – assess oxygenation

    • Aminophylline/Bronchodilators opens airways to improve gas exchange


    • •Morphine Sulfate IV - dilates veins and decreases blood returning to the heart
    • and lungs."




    Rotating Tourniquets

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview