Physio

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Anonymous
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7944
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Physio
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2010-02-24 03:14:05
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Physio Chapter 10
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Physio Chapter 10
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  1. Change environmental info into AP's - the common language of NS.
    Transduce
  2. Each type of receptor responds to a particular...
    • Modality.
    • (form of info, eg, sound, light, pressure)
  3. Different modalities perceived as different because...
    CNS pathways they stimulate.
  4. Can be simple dendritic endings of neurons.
    Specialized endings of neurons or.
    Non-neuronal cells.
    Categories of Sensory Receptors
  5. Sense Chemical stimuli.
    Chemo receptors.
  6. transduce light.
    Photo receptors.
  7. Respond to temperature changes.
    Thermo Receptors.
  8. Respond to deformation of their cell membrane.
    Mechano Receptors.
  9. Respond to intense stimuli by signaling pain.
    Nociceptors.
  10. Signal position info of body parts In muscles tendons joints.
    Proprioceptors.
  11. Receptors are in the skin, respond to touch, pressure, temperature or pain.
    Cutaneous Receptors
  12. Are part of a sensory organ, such as hearing, sight, equilibrium, taste, smell
    Special Sense.
  13. Respond at constant rate as long as stimulus is applied (ex pain)
    Tonic Receptors
  14. Respond with burst of activity but quickly reduce firing rate to constant stimulation - Adaptation ex smell, touch
    Phasic Receptors.
  15. Stimulation of sensory fiber evokes only the sensation of its modality.
    Law of Specific Nerve Energies
  16. Normal Stimulus is...
    Adequate stimulus.
  17. Requires least energy to activate its receptor
    Adequate stimulus.
  18. Like an EPSP (are sensory receptors)
    Generator (receptor) Potential - graded.
  19. Produced in response to adequate stimulus.
    Generator (receptor) Potential - graded.
  20. After threshold is reached AP frequency is proportional to amplitude of ...
    • Generator potential.
    • Proportional to stimulus intensity.
  21. Includes Touch, Pressure, Hot, Cold, Pair.
    Cutaneous Sensations.
  22. Mediated by free and encapsulated nerve endings.
    Cutaneous sensations.
  23. Pain mediated by
    Nociceptors.
  24. Substance P called...
    Pain NT.
  25. Heat elicits pain thru....
    Capsaicin receptors.
  26. Is "hot" chemical in chili peppers.
    Capsaicin.
  27. Cutaneous receptors include:
    • free Nerve endings.
    • ruffini endings.
    • Merkel's disc.
    • Meisner's.
    • Pacinian corpuscles.
  28. Include sensations from cutaneous and proprioceptors.
    Neural Pathways for Somastesthetic Sensations.
  29. A 3-neuron pathway carries info to ....
    Cerebral Cortex.
  30. From sensory receptor to spinal cord/medula
    1st order neurons.
  31. From spinal cord, medula to Thalmus.
    2nd order Neurons.
  32. From Thalamus to sensory cortex (post central gyrus)
    3rd Order Neurons.
  33. Pain felt in somatic locations resulting from damage to an internal organ.
    Referred Pain.
  34. Angina Pectoris - Myocardial infarction - Left arm pain.
    Example of Referred Pain.
  35. Results from two 1st order neurons synapsing on a common 2nd order neuron.
    Referred Pain
  36. Sensory regions served by a particular spinal nerve.
    Dermatomes.
  37. The area of skin whose stimulation results in changes in firing rate of a sensory neuron.
    Receptive fields
  38. Area varies inversely with density of receptors
    • Receptive Fields.
    • Back of legs have low density of sensory receptors and receptive field are large.
  39. Minimum distance at which 2 points of touch can be perceived as seperate.
    Two-point Touch Threshold
  40. Measure of ? or distance between receptive fields.
    Tactile acuity.
  41. The CNS process that sharpens sensation.
    Lateral Inhibition.
  42. Sensory neurons at center of stimulation area inhibit....
    More lateral neurons.
  43. Taste
    Gustation.
  44. Taste (gustatory) receptors
    Taste Buds
  45. Innervated by Cranial Nerves VII and IX.
    Taste Buds.
  46. Detects sweet, sour, salty, bitter, savory (umami)
    Taste
  47. 50-100 ? in each taste bud.
    Taste Receptor cells (chemoreceptors)
  48. Each bud can respond to ...
    All categories of tastes.
  49. Smell.
    Olfation.
  50. Located in olfactory epithelium at top of nose.
    Olfactory chemoreceptors.
  51. Innervated by CN I
    Smell (olfation)
  52. Orientation to gravity.
    Equilibrium.
  53. Vestibular apparatus consists of
    Otolith organs.
  54. Otolith organs
    • Utricle, saccule, semicircular canals.
    • Cranial Nerve VIII
  55. Sensory structures located within
    Membranous Labyrinth
  56. Membranous Labyrinth filled with...
    Endolymph and located within bony labyrinth.
  57. Detect Linear Acceleration.
    Utricle and saccle
  58. Oriented in 3 planes, detect angular acceleration.
    Semicircular Canals.
  59. Receptors for equilibrium
    Hair Cells
  60. Contain 20-50 hairlike extensions
    Sereocilia.

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