Microbiology Ch 10-12

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Microbiology Ch 10-12
2011-04-19 23:23:35
Taxonomy Bacteria Archaea Fungus Algae Protozoa Helminth

Taxonomy, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungus, Algae, Protozoa, Helminth
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  1. Principles of Taxonomy and why each step is important?
    • Identification- characterizing an organism to find out what it is (lab tests )
    • Classification- arrange organism into similar or related groups to provide for ID and study (comparisons/differences to determine how closely related)
    • universal nomenclature- universal names for organisms (all organisms that are the same have same name vs. different name for same organism)
  2. define Phylogeny
    study of evolutionary history of of organism
  3. define phenotype and genotype
    • phenotype- all lab test done, what is observable / expressed
    • genotype- genes
  4. what are the 3 domain classifications ? what does line length mean?
    • 3 domains: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
    • line length is based on genetic differences (longer line length = more differences)
  5. what is the endosymbiotic theory?
    • in early evolution- eukaryotes formed relationship with prokaryotes adn created energy from light/mitochondria.
    • (eukaryotes come from prokaryotes)
  6. define eukaryotic species?
    group closely related organism that breed among themselves.
  7. define prokaryotic species?
    population of cells with similar characteristics
  8. define clone? define strain?
    • clone- population derived from a single cell
    • strain- genetically different cells within a clone
  9. define viral species?
    population of virus with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche.
  10. 4 catagories in eukaryotic domain and what are thier characteristics?
    • animalia- mulitcellular, no cell wall, chemoheterotrophic
    • plantae- multicellular, cellulose cell wall, photoautotrophic
    • fungi- unicell/multicellular, chitin cell wall, develop from spores or hyphal fragments, chemoheterotrophic
    • protista- random group of eukaryotic organism not fitting into other domains
  11. standards used for classifying organisms?
    • Bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology- provides ID for bacteria/archea (based on morphology, stains, and lab tests)
    • Bergeys Manual of systematic bacteriology- provides phylogenetic info on bacteria/archaea (based on rRNA sequencing)
  12. Phenotype characteristics?
    • microscopy: gram stain, acid fast stain, cell shapes / arrangement
    • colony morphology: size, color, border shape
    • selective/differential media growth
    • biochemical tests (more rely on pH)
  13. what is western blot? steps ?
    test used to rule out for a specific purpose (HIV, lyme disease, ect)

    • step 1: protiens from known bacteria/virus seperated by electric current in electrophoresis (move at speeds in relation to size)
    • step 2: protiens transferred to filter by blotting
    • step 3: patients serum washed over filter (if antibodies present agglutination occurs)
    • step 4: anti-human serum with enzyme washed over filter
    • step 5: enzyme substrate is added (agglutination visible)
  14. what is DNA base composition (G and C %)?
    • G/C is triple bond; A/T is double bond.
    • The triple bond is heavier then double bond so it seperates and settles at the bottom.
  15. DNA fingerprinting?
    • restriction enzymes digest DNA into peices
    • fragments seperated by elecrophoresis
  16. what is PCR and why do you use it?
    Polymerase chain reaction amplifies DNA. used to get more DNA sample from a small amout of DNA
  17. what is nucleic acide hybridization?
    • measures ability of DNA strands from 1 organism to hybridize with DNA strands of another organism. Assumes if 2 species are related then nucleic acid will be similar
    • greater degree of hybridization = greater degree of related
  18. steps to nucleic acid hybridization?
    • heat 2 seperate strands
    • combine single strand of DNA
    • cool to allow renaturation of double strand DNA
    • determine degree of hybridation
  19. what do results mean when doing nucleic acid hybridization?
    • complete- organisms identical
    • partial- organisms related
    • none- organisms unrelated
  20. use of southern blotting?
    used to detect specific DNA
  21. steps to southern blot?
    • DNA fragment cloned
    • cloned DNA fragment marked with flouorescent dye and separated into single to form DNA probes
    • unknown bacteria collected on filter
    • celsl are lysed adn DNA is released
    • DNA is sepaated into single strands
    • DNA probes are added to DNA from unknown bacteria
    • DNA probes hybridize with unknown DNA. Excess probe washed off
    Tests used for Classification ?
    • differential stain
    • DNA base composition
    • DNA fingerprinting
    • PCR
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
    • rRNA sequencing
    Tests for identification?
    • all but:
    • DNA base composition
    • rRNA sequencing
  24. archaea characteristics?
    • size- 0.02-750 um
    • cell wall lack peptidoglycan
    • ribosomes unique from both bacteria/eukaryote
  25. groups of Archaea?
    • hyperthrmophiles
    • methanogens
    • extreme halophiles
  26. what is lateral gene transfer in relation to archaea?
    gene transfer between each other and also gene transfer with bacteria ---> pathogenesis
  27. define mycology?
    study of fungi
  28. characteristic of fungi?
    • decomposers but some are carnivorous
    • yeast are single celled
    • molds are filamentous
    • macrofungi are mushrooms
    • many are dimorhpic(exist as yeast or hypae under different circumstances)
    • prefer dryer / acidic climate
    • decomposers
    • secrete exozymes that digest extracellularly
    • symbiosis with plnt roots/algae
  29. define hyphae? define mycelia?
    • hyphae- filamentous cellulare growth/extensions that fungi produce (not yeast)
    • mycelia- tangled masses of hypae, usually located under surfaces (except molds)
  30. define a mushroom?
    above ground fruiting bodies which disseminate spores from extensive underground mycelia
  31. define mycoses?
    fungal disease
  32. 3 types of disease?
    • allergy to spores
    • ingested toxin
    • fungal infection
  33. 3 classifications of fungal infections?
    • superficial- surface only, not reaching underlying tissues (redness/irritation)
    • intermediate-crosses to underlying tissues but not spreading to blood stream but has potential (inflammation, more redness, some bleeding)
    • systemic- spread into cardiovascular system and into blood stream ( open wound, bleeding, infection, redness around initial location)
  34. arthropod vectors?
    terrestrial animal with exoskeleton and jointed legs (fleas/lice/ticks/spiders)
  35. 2 types of vectors?
    • mechanical- carry microbe to new host (land on something gross and then land on you)
    • biological vector- carry microbe as through some part of its life cycle
  36. helminth characteristics
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular animal
    • chemoheterotrophic
    • parasitic worm
  37. transmission of tapeworm?
    fecal to oral
  38. algae definition?
    photosynthetic member of eucarya domain
  39. algae characteristics
    • aquatic
    • oxygenic phototrophs (produce o2)
    • unicell/multicellular
  40. red tides?
    toxic substance produced by dynophyta algae that can be fatal if ingested
  41. protozoa characteristics
    • eukaryotic
    • unicellular
    • aquatic
    • asexual reproduction by fission, buddign, schizogony, conjugation
    • some produce cysts
  42. spider bites and infection?
    • most bites are MRSA infections
    • spider bites can get infected later, if lesion doesnt heal suspect staph infections
  43. nomenclature rules
    • first word (genus)- capital, underline or italicize
    • second word (species)- lower case, italic

  44. morphology descriptions?
    • diplo- pair
    • strepto- row 4+
    • tetrad- 2 pair
    • sarcinae- 2 tetrad
    • staphylo- cluster
  45. use of microbes in industry
    • fermentation (cheese, yogurt)
    • insulin (manufacture from E. coli in lab)
  46. bioremediation
    use microbes to clean up garbage
  47. 1um = ?
    1 nm = ?
    • 1 um = 10^-6 M
    • 1 nm = 10 ^-9 M
  48. what unit of conversion is smallest?
    nanometer (nm)
  49. (+) acid fast stain vs. (-) acid fast stain
    • (+) retains basic stain after acid wash
    • (-) counterstain
  50. why is there no heat fixed in neg. stain?
    to see capsule if present
  51. stimuli that attracts or repells during chemotaxis?
    light, chemical, gravity, magnatism
  52. gram positive componants
    • thick peptidoglycan
    • teichoic acids
    • susceptible to penicillan b/c no outer membrane
  53. gram negative components
    • thin peptidoglycan
    • outer membrane with lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotien, and porin protien which make it a barrier for penicillin to get in.
  54. sporulation vs germination?
    • sporulation is formation of endorspore d/t stress
    • germination is return to vegetation state