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Principles of Taxonomy and why each step is important?
- Identification- characterizing an organism to find out what it is (lab tests )
- Classification- arrange organism into similar or related groups to provide for ID and study (comparisons/differences to determine how closely related)
- universal nomenclature- universal names for organisms (all organisms that are the same have same name vs. different name for same organism)
study of evolutionary history of of organism
define phenotype and genotype
- phenotype- all lab test done, what is observable / expressed
- genotype- genes
what are the 3 domain classifications ? what does line length mean?
- 3 domains: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
- line length is based on genetic differences (longer line length = more differences)
what is the endosymbiotic theory?
- in early evolution- eukaryotes formed relationship with prokaryotes adn created energy from light/mitochondria.
- (eukaryotes come from prokaryotes)
define eukaryotic species?
group closely related organism that breed among themselves.
define prokaryotic species?
population of cells with similar characteristics
define clone? define strain?
- clone- population derived from a single cell
- strain- genetically different cells within a clone
define viral species?
population of virus with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche.
4 catagories in eukaryotic domain and what are thier characteristics?
- animalia- mulitcellular, no cell wall, chemoheterotrophic
- plantae- multicellular, cellulose cell wall, photoautotrophic
- fungi- unicell/multicellular, chitin cell wall, develop from spores or hyphal fragments, chemoheterotrophic
- protista- random group of eukaryotic organism not fitting into other domains
standards used for classifying organisms?
- Bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology- provides ID for bacteria/archea (based on morphology, stains, and lab tests)
- Bergeys Manual of systematic bacteriology- provides phylogenetic info on bacteria/archaea (based on rRNA sequencing)
- microscopy: gram stain, acid fast stain, cell shapes / arrangement
- colony morphology: size, color, border shape
- selective/differential media growth
- biochemical tests (more rely on pH)
what is western blot? steps ?
test used to rule out for a specific purpose (HIV, lyme disease, ect)
- step 1: protiens from known bacteria/virus seperated by electric current in electrophoresis (move at speeds in relation to size)
- step 2: protiens transferred to filter by blotting
- step 3: patients serum washed over filter (if antibodies present agglutination occurs)
- step 4: anti-human serum with enzyme washed over filter
- step 5: enzyme substrate is added (agglutination visible)
what is DNA base composition (G and C %)?
- G/C is triple bond; A/T is double bond.
- The triple bond is heavier then double bond so it seperates and settles at the bottom.
- restriction enzymes digest DNA into peices
- fragments seperated by elecrophoresis
what is PCR and why do you use it?
Polymerase chain reaction amplifies DNA. used to get more DNA sample from a small amout of DNA
what is nucleic acide hybridization?
- measures ability of DNA strands from 1 organism to hybridize with DNA strands of another organism. Assumes if 2 species are related then nucleic acid will be similar
- greater degree of hybridization = greater degree of related
steps to nucleic acid hybridization?
- heat 2 seperate strands
- combine single strand of DNA
- cool to allow renaturation of double strand DNA
- determine degree of hybridation
what do results mean when doing nucleic acid hybridization?
- complete- organisms identical
- partial- organisms related
- none- organisms unrelated
use of southern blotting?
used to detect specific DNA
steps to southern blot?
- DNA fragment cloned
- cloned DNA fragment marked with flouorescent dye and separated into single to form DNA probes
- unknown bacteria collected on filter
- celsl are lysed adn DNA is released
- DNA is sepaated into single strands
- DNA probes are added to DNA from unknown bacteria
- DNA probes hybridize with unknown DNA. Excess probe washed off
Tests used for Classification ?
- differential stain
- DNA base composition
- DNA fingerprinting
- Nucleic Acid Hybridization
- rRNA sequencing
Tests for identification?
- all but:
- DNA base composition
- rRNA sequencing
- size- 0.02-750 um
- cell wall lack peptidoglycan
- ribosomes unique from both bacteria/eukaryote
groups of Archaea?
- extreme halophiles
what is lateral gene transfer in relation to archaea?
gene transfer between each other and also gene transfer with bacteria ---> pathogenesis
study of fungi
characteristic of fungi?
- decomposers but some are carnivorous
- yeast are single celled
- molds are filamentous
- macrofungi are mushrooms
- many are dimorhpic(exist as yeast or hypae under different circumstances)
- prefer dryer / acidic climate
- secrete exozymes that digest extracellularly
- symbiosis with plnt roots/algae
define hyphae? define mycelia?
- hyphae- filamentous cellulare growth/extensions that fungi produce (not yeast)
- mycelia- tangled masses of hypae, usually located under surfaces (except molds)
define a mushroom?
above ground fruiting bodies which disseminate spores from extensive underground mycelia
3 types of disease?
- allergy to spores
- ingested toxin
- fungal infection
3 classifications of fungal infections?
- superficial- surface only, not reaching underlying tissues (redness/irritation)
- intermediate-crosses to underlying tissues but not spreading to blood stream but has potential (inflammation, more redness, some bleeding)
- systemic- spread into cardiovascular system and into blood stream ( open wound, bleeding, infection, redness around initial location)
terrestrial animal with exoskeleton and jointed legs (fleas/lice/ticks/spiders)
2 types of vectors?
- mechanical- carry microbe to new host (land on something gross and then land on you)
- biological vector- carry microbe as through some part of its life cycle
- multicellular animal
- parasitic worm
transmission of tapeworm?
fecal to oral
photosynthetic member of eucarya domain
- oxygenic phototrophs (produce o2)
toxic substance produced by dynophyta algae that can be fatal if ingested
- asexual reproduction by fission, buddign, schizogony, conjugation
- some produce cysts
spider bites and infection?
- most bites are MRSA infections
- spider bites can get infected later, if lesion doesnt heal suspect staph infections
- first word (genus)- capital, underline or italicize
- second word (species)- lower case, italic
MUST SOUND LATIN
- diplo- pair
- strepto- row 4+
- tetrad- 2 pair
- sarcinae- 2 tetrad
- staphylo- cluster
use of microbes in industry
- fermentation (cheese, yogurt)
- insulin (manufacture from E. coli in lab)
use microbes to clean up garbage
1um = ?
1 nm = ?
1 um = 10^-6 M
- 1 nm = 10 ^-9 M
what unit of conversion is smallest?
(+) acid fast stain vs. (-) acid fast stain
- (+) retains basic stain after acid wash
- (-) counterstain
why is there no heat fixed in neg. stain?
to see capsule if present
stimuli that attracts or repells during chemotaxis?
light, chemical, gravity, magnatism
gram positive componants
- thick peptidoglycan
- teichoic acids
- susceptible to penicillan b/c no outer membrane
gram negative components
- thin peptidoglycan
- outer membrane with lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotien, and porin protien which make it a barrier for penicillin to get in.
sporulation vs germination?
- sporulation is formation of endorspore d/t stress
- germination is return to vegetation state