Microbiology Ch 10-12
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Microbiology Ch 10-12
Taxonomy Bacteria Archaea Fungus Algae Protozoa Helminth
Taxonomy, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungus, Algae, Protozoa, Helminth
Principles of Taxonomy and why each step is important?
Identification- characterizing an organism to find out what it is (lab tests )
Classification- arrange organism into similar or related groups to provide for ID and study (comparisons/differences to determine how closely related)
universal nomenclature- universal names for organisms (all organisms that are the same have same name vs. different name for same organism)
study of evolutionary history of of organism
define phenotype and genotype
phenotype- all lab test done, what is observable / expressed
what are the 3 domain classifications ? what does line length mean?
: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
line length is based on genetic differences (longer line length = more differences)
what is the endosymbiotic theory?
in early evolution- eukaryotes formed relationship with prokaryotes adn created energy from light/mitochondria.
(eukaryotes come from prokaryotes)
define eukaryotic species?
group closely related organism that breed among themselves.
define prokaryotic species?
population of cells with similar characteristics
define clone? define strain?
clone- population derived from a single cell
strain- genetically different cells within a clone
define viral species?
population of virus with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche.
4 catagories in eukaryotic domain and what are thier characteristics?
animalia- mulitcellular, no cell wall, chemoheterotrophic
plantae- multicellular, cellulose cell wall, photoautotrophic
fungi- unicell/multicellular, chitin cell wall, develop from spores or hyphal fragments, chemoheterotrophic
protista- random group of eukaryotic organism not fitting into other domains
standards used for classifying organisms?
Bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology- provides ID for bacteria/archea (based on morphology, stains, and lab tests)
Bergeys Manual of systematic bacteriology- provides phylogenetic info on bacteria/archaea (based on rRNA sequencing)
: gram stain, acid fast stain, cell shapes / arrangement
: size, color, border shape
selective/differential media growth
biochemical tests (more rely on pH)
what is western blot? steps ?
test used to rule out for a specific purpose (HIV, lyme disease, ect)
: protiens from known bacteria/virus seperated by electric current in electrophoresis (move at speeds in relation to size)
: protiens transferred to filter by blotting
: patients serum washed over filter (if antibodies present agglutination occurs)
: anti-human serum with enzyme washed over filter
: enzyme substrate is added (agglutination visible)
what is DNA base composition (G and C %)?
G/C is triple bond; A/T is double bond.
The triple bond is heavier then double bond so it seperates and settles at the bottom.
restriction enzymes digest DNA into peices
fragments seperated by elecrophoresis
what is PCR and why do you use it?
Polymerase chain reaction amplifies DNA. used to get more DNA sample from a small amout of DNA
what is nucleic acide hybridization?
measures ability of DNA strands from 1 organism to hybridize with DNA strands of another organism. Assumes if 2 species are related then nucleic acid will be similar
greater degree of hybridization = greater degree of related
steps to nucleic acid hybridization?
heat 2 seperate strands
combine single strand of DNA
cool to allow renaturation of double strand DNA
determine degree of hybridation
what do results mean when doing nucleic acid hybridization?
complete- organisms identical
partial- organisms related
none- organisms unrelated
use of southern blotting?
used to detect specific DNA
steps to southern blot?
DNA fragment cloned
cloned DNA fragment marked with flouorescent dye and separated into single to form DNA probes
unknown bacteria collected on filter
celsl are lysed adn DNA is released
DNA is sepaated into single strands
DNA probes are added to DNA from unknown bacteria
DNA probes hybridize with unknown DNA. Excess probe washed off
Tests used for Classification ?
DNA base composition
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Tests for identification?
DNA base composition
size- 0.02-750 um
cell wall lack peptidoglycan
ribosomes unique from both bacteria/eukaryote
groups of Archaea?
what is lateral gene transfer in relation to archaea?
gene transfer between each other and also gene transfer with bacteria ---> pathogenesis
study of fungi
characteristic of fungi?
decomposers but some are carnivorous
yeast are single celled
molds are filamentous
macrofungi are mushrooms
many are dimorhpic(exist as yeast or hypae under different circumstances)
prefer dryer / acidic climate
secrete exozymes that digest extracellularly
symbiosis with plnt roots/algae
define hyphae? define mycelia?
hyphae- filamentous cellulare growth/extensions that fungi produce (not yeast)
mycelia- tangled masses of hypae, usually located under surfaces (except molds)
define a mushroom?
above ground fruiting bodies which disseminate spores from extensive underground mycelia
3 types of disease?
allergy to spores
3 classifications of fungal infections?
superficial- surface only, not reaching underlying tissues (redness/irritation)
intermediate-crosses to underlying tissues but not spreading to blood stream but has potential (inflammation, more redness, some bleeding)
systemic- spread into cardiovascular system and into blood stream ( open wound, bleeding, infection, redness around initial location)
terrestrial animal with exoskeleton and jointed legs (fleas/lice/ticks/spiders)
2 types of vectors?
mechanical- carry microbe to new host (land on something gross and then land on you)
biological vector- carry microbe as through some part of its life cycle
transmission of tapeworm?
fecal to oral
photosynthetic member of eucarya domain
oxygenic phototrophs (produce o2)
toxic substance produced by dynophyta algae that can be fatal if ingested
asexual reproduction by fission, buddign, schizogony, conjugation
some produce cysts
spider bites and infection?
most bites are MRSA infections
spider bites can get infected later, if lesion doesnt heal suspect staph infections
first word (genus)- capital, underline or italicize
second word (species)- lower case, italic
MUST SOUND LATIN
strepto- row 4+
tetrad- 2 pair
sarcinae- 2 tetrad
use of microbes in industry
fermentation (cheese, yogurt)
insulin (manufacture from E.
use microbes to clean up garbage
1um = ?
1 nm = ?
1 um = 10^-6 M
1 nm = 10 ^-9 M
what unit of conversion is smallest?
(+) acid fast stain vs. (-) acid fast stain
(+) retains basic stain after acid wash
why is there no heat fixed in neg. stain?
to see capsule if present
stimuli that attracts or repells during chemotaxis?
light, chemical, gravity, magnatism
gram positive componants
susceptible to penicillan b/c no outer membrane
gram negative components
outer membrane with lipopolysaccharide, lipoprotien, and porin protien which make it a barrier for penicillin to get in.
sporulation vs germination?
sporulation is formation of endorspore d/t stress
germination is return to vegetation state