Chordates(Ch. 24-26)

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Chordates(Ch. 24-26)
2011-04-13 21:15:20


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  1. In what way do arthropods compete with humans for resources?
    Many are herbivores that feed on plants that humans use for food, textiles, and building materials.
  2. What is insecticide?
    A chemical compound that kills insects and other arthropods
  3. What are three negative aspects of insecticide use?
    It is toxic to other organisms including humans They don’t breakdown easily (biomagnification) arthropods may become resistant to it
  4. What are three safer methods scientists have developed to control insects?
    Arthropod-specific insecticides traps and buriers genetically modified plants that are resistant
  5. What is a vector?
    An organism that carries disease from one host to another
  6. What was the vector for the Bubonic Plague?
  7. What were the vectors for Yellow Fever?
  8. What were the vectors for Malaria?
  9. What were the vectors for West Nile Virus?
  10. How did fleas transfer the virus from the bubonic plague?
    The bit infected rats and then bit humans and infected them
  11. What does yellow fever cause?
    Fever and bleeding
  12. What types of animals are typically affected by yellow fever?
  13. What type of animal is typically affected by West Nile Virus?
  14. What three groups make up the phylum Chordata?
    Vertebrates tunicates lancelets
  15. What is an example of a tunicate in the phylum Chordata?
    Sea Squirt
  16. What is an example of Lancelets in the phylum Chordata?
  17. Describe Lancelets in the phylum Chordata.
  18. Describe Tunicates in the phylum Chordata.
  19. What extends beyond the anal opening, and contains segments of muscle tissue used for movement?
  20. What runs along the animal’s back and forms from a section of the ectoderm?
    Hollow Nerve Chord
  21. What are slits through the body wall in the pharynx?
    Pharyngeal Slits
  22. What is a flexible skeletal support rod embedded in the animal’s back called?
  23. What is an endoskeleton?
    An internal skeleton made up of bone of cartilage
  24. How does the growth of an animal with an endoskeleton differ from the growth of an animal with an exoskeleton?
    Endoskeletons grow with an animal while exoskeletons do not so they must be shed for the animal to grow
  25. Describe the vertebrate class Agnatha in the phylum Chordata.
    Jawless Fish
  26. Describe the vertebrate class Chondrichthyes in the phylum Chordata.
    Cartilage fish
  27. Describe the vertebrate class Osteichthyes in the phylum Chordata.
    Boney Fish
  28. Describe the vertebrate class Amphibia in the phylum Chordata.
    The can live on land or in water
  29. Describe the vertebrate class Aves in the phylum Chordata.
    They have feathers
  30. Describe the vertebrate class Reptilia in the phylum Chordata.
    They can retain water and only live on land
  31. Describe the vertebrate class Mammalia in the phylum Chordata.
    They have hair, mammary glands, three middle ear bones and a jaw for food
  32. Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Agnatha.
  33. Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Chondrichthyes
  34. Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Osteichthyes.
    Parrot Fish
  35. Give two examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Amphibia.
    Frogs and Salamanders
  36. Give examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Reptilia.
    • Lizard
    • alligator
    • turtle
  37. Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Aves
  38. Give examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Mammalia
    • Human
    • Lion
  39. Which animals are recognized as the first vertebrates?
  40. Which two groups of jawless fish still exist today?
    Lamprey and Hagfish
  41. Endo : Inside :: Exo : _______
  42. Fish use specialized _____ to take in dissolved oxygen in water.
  43. Gills are large sheets of frilly ______ filled with __________.
    • Tissue
    • Capillaries
  44. Fish ___________ systems pump blood in a single loop through a heart with two main chambers.
  45. _______-_______ ____ is the ________ movement of water against the flow of _____ in the fish’s gills.
    • Counter-Current Flow
    • Opposite
    • Blood
  46. Explain how counter-current flow works.
    It maximizes the amount of oxygen the fish can take in.
  47. What is an advantage of having jaws?
    It makes the organism a better predator.
  48. Members of the phylum Chondrichthyes have skeletons made of _________.
  49. While the cartilaginous fish as a group may be ancient, they have many advanced features. They have ________ Fertilization, and many species give birth to live young.
  50. Fish can sense their prey’s movement at a distance with a sensory system called the ________ ____.
    Lateral Line
  51. Many fish also have _______ organs that detect the electrical currents made by ______ contractions n other animals. These sensory organs are called _______________ cells because they receive electrical signals.
    • Sensory
    • Muscular
    • Electroreceptive
  52. What type of fin is fan-shaped and can easily change shape?
  53. What type of fin is a paired fin that allows fish to walk on land (most fish with this type of fin are extinct)?
  54. What is a modified lung that allows fish to be buoyant?
    Swim Bladder
  55. A tetrapod is a __________ that has ____ limbs
    • Vertebrate
    • 4
  56. __________ are animals that can live both on land and in _____.
    • Amphibians
    • water
  57. Amphibians have large _________ and ___ bones to support more weight .
    • Shoulders
    • hip
  58. Amphibians have mobile, muscular _______ used to capture food.
  59. Amphibians have a ______ ___ to hear outside of water.
    Middle Ear
  60. What are the aquatic larvae of frogs called?
  61. What are the different methods that amphibians use to breathe?
    • Through their skin
    • gills
    • lungs
  62. Why can’t amphibians travel too far away from a source of water?
    They will dry out
  63. List three strategies used by amphibians to keep their eggs moist.
    • Lay their eggs in moist soil
    • wrap them in leaves
    • put them in pouches on the mothers back
  64. What organism has a long body and walks side to side?
  65. If the suffix –pod means “foot”, then what does the term tetrapod mean?
    Four footed
  66. What organism is tail-less and has muscular legs and webbed feet.
  67. What is an amniote?
    A vertebrate with a thin, tough, membranous sac that holds the embryo or fetus
  68. Are humans amniotes?
  69. What is keratin used for?
    It forms a water-proof layer
  70. How does an amniotic egg allow amniotes to live permanently on land?
    It is almost completely water-proof so it won’t dry out.
  71. What is the advantage for rattlesnakes to retain their eggs until they hatch?
    It protects them from predators.
  72. What is the function of the placenta?
    It carries nutrients from the mother to the embryo and removes metabolic waste from embryo.
  73. What is a vertebrate that has a thin, tough membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus during development?
    An amniote
  74. What is a protein that binds to lipids inside a skin cell, forming a water repellent layer that keeps water from escaping?
  75. What is an almost completely waterproof container that keeps the embryo from drying out?
    Amniotic egg
  76. What is a membranous organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy?
    A placenta