In what way do arthropods compete with humans for resources?
Many are herbivores that feed on plants that humans use for food, textiles, and building materials.
What is insecticide?
A chemical compound that kills insects and other arthropods
What are three negative aspects of insecticide use?
It is toxic to other organisms including humans They don’t breakdown easily (biomagnification) arthropods may become resistant to it
What are three safer methods scientists have developed to control insects?
Arthropod-specific insecticides traps and buriers genetically modified plants that are resistant
What is a vector?
An organism that carries disease from one host to another
What was the vector for the Bubonic Plague?
What were the vectors for Yellow Fever?
What were the vectors for Malaria?
What were the vectors for West Nile Virus?
How did fleas transfer the virus from the bubonic plague?
The bit infected rats and then bit humans and infected them
What does yellow fever cause?
Fever and bleeding
What types of animals are typically affected by yellow fever?
What type of animal is typically affected by West Nile Virus?
What three groups make up the phylum Chordata?
Vertebrates tunicates lancelets
What is an example of a tunicate in the phylum Chordata?
What is an example of Lancelets in the phylum Chordata?
Describe Lancelets in the phylum Chordata.
Describe Tunicates in the phylum Chordata.
What extends beyond the anal opening, and contains segments of muscle tissue used for movement?
What runs along the animal’s back and forms from a section of the ectoderm?
Hollow Nerve Chord
What are slits through the body wall in the pharynx?
What is a flexible skeletal support rod embedded in the animal’s back called?
What is an endoskeleton?
An internal skeleton made up of bone of cartilage
How does the growth of an animal with an endoskeleton differ from the growth of an animal with an exoskeleton?
Endoskeletons grow with an animal while exoskeletons do not so they must be shed for the animal to grow
Describe the vertebrate class Agnatha in the phylum Chordata.
Describe the vertebrate class Chondrichthyes in the phylum Chordata.
Describe the vertebrate class Osteichthyes in the phylum Chordata.
Describe the vertebrate class Amphibia in the phylum Chordata.
The can live on land or in water
Describe the vertebrate class Aves in the phylum Chordata.
They have feathers
Describe the vertebrate class Reptilia in the phylum Chordata.
They can retain water and only live on land
Describe the vertebrate class Mammalia in the phylum Chordata.
They have hair, mammary glands, three middle ear bones and a jaw for food
Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Agnatha.
Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Chondrichthyes
Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Osteichthyes.
Give two examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Amphibia.
Frogs and Salamanders
Give examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Reptilia.
Give an example of an organism from the vertebrate class Aves
Give examples of organisms from the vertebrate class Mammalia
Which animals are recognized as the first vertebrates?
Which two groups of jawless fish still exist today?
Lamprey and Hagfish
Endo : Inside :: Exo : _______
Fish use specialized _____ to take in dissolved oxygen in water.
Gills are large sheets of frilly ______ filled with __________.
Fish ___________ systems pump blood in a single loop through a heart with two main chambers.
_______-_______ ____ is the ________ movement of water against the flow of _____ in the fish’s gills.
Explain how counter-current flow works.
It maximizes the amount of oxygen the fish can take in.
What is an advantage of having jaws?
It makes the organism a better predator.
Members of the phylum Chondrichthyes have skeletons made of _________.
While the cartilaginous fish as a group may be ancient, they have many advanced features. They have ________ Fertilization, and many species give birth to live young.
Fish can sense their prey’s movement at a distance with a sensory system called the ________ ____.
Many fish also have _______ organs that detect the electrical currents made by ______ contractions n other animals. These sensory organs are called _______________ cells because they receive electrical signals.
What type of fin is fan-shaped and can easily change shape?
What type of fin is a paired fin that allows fish to walk on land (most fish with this type of fin are extinct)?
What is a modified lung that allows fish to be buoyant?
A tetrapod is a __________ that has ____ limbs
__________ are animals that can live both on land and in _____.
Amphibians have large _________ and ___ bones to support more weight .
Amphibians have mobile, muscular _______ used to capture food.
Amphibians have a ______ ___ to hear outside of water.
What are the aquatic larvae of frogs called?
What are the different methods that amphibians use to breathe?
Through their skin
Why can’t amphibians travel too far away from a source of water?
They will dry out
List three strategies used by amphibians to keep their eggs moist.
Lay their eggs in moist soil
wrap them in leaves
put them in pouches on the mothers back
What organism has a long body and walks side to side?
If the suffix –pod means “foot”, then what does the term tetrapod mean?
What organism is tail-less and has muscular legs and webbed feet.
What is an amniote?
A vertebrate with a thin, tough, membranous sac that holds the embryo or fetus
Are humans amniotes?
What is keratin used for?
It forms a water-proof layer
How does an amniotic egg allow amniotes to live permanently on land?
It is almost completely water-proof so it won’t dry out.
What is the advantage for rattlesnakes to retain their eggs until they hatch?
It protects them from predators.
What is the function of the placenta?
It carries nutrients from the mother to the embryo and removes metabolic waste from embryo.
What is a vertebrate that has a thin, tough membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus during development?
What is a protein that binds to lipids inside a skin cell, forming a water repellent layer that keeps water from escaping?
What is an almost completely waterproof container that keeps the embryo from drying out?
What is a membranous organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy?