pharm 9-12 continued

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pharm 9-12 continued
2011-04-13 21:37:12

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  1. Hemolysis
    the rupture of erythrocytes with release of hemoglobin into the plasma
  2. homologous
    belonging to the same speices
  3. hypercalcemia
    excess calcium in the blood
  4. hyperkalemia
    excess potassium in blood
  5. hypernatremia
    excess sodium in blood
  6. hypocalcemia
    decreased calcium in the blood
  7. hypokalemia
    decreased potassium in blood
  8. hyponatremia
    decreased sodium in blood
  9. hypovolemia
    decreased volume of circulating fluid in the body
  10. intravenous
    whithin a vein as administration of medications
  11. isotonic
    when fluid surrounds the cell membrane has same tonicity and osmotic pull as the inside of the cell
  12. metabolic acidosis
    condition resulting from the accumulation of acid or depletion of alkaline reserve in the blood and body tissues
  13. hypertonic
    fluid on inside of cell membrane has a greater tonicity and osmotic pull than the inside of the cell membrane, causes cells to shrink
  14. hypotonic
    fluid on inside of cell membrane has a lesser tonicity and osmotic pull than the inside of the cell membrane; causes cells to expand
  15. osmosis
    passage if waater through a semipermeable membrane from area of lower concentration to area of higher concentration
  16. solute
    substances dissolved in water
  17. major electrolytes in body?
    sodium chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, magnesium
  18. basic functions of blood
    transport oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, enzymes throughout the body. maintains acid base balance, its temperature, and water content.
  19. average circulating blood volume in an adult?
    70 mL/Kg of body mass
  20. formed elements of blood
    erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
  21. universal blood to be given to anyone
    O negative
  22. hemoglobin normal range and hematocrit normal range?
    • 12-16 g/100 mL in females, 14-18 g/100 mL in males for hemoglobin
    • 40-52% in males, 35-46% in females for hematocrit
  23. hespan
    synthetic fluid used for its osmotic properties, expands blood volume
  24. sodium chloride
    most common fluid replacement as well as mostly used irrigant for open surgical procedures. used with caution around ESU
  25. sterile water
    mainly used to rinse instruments, cool instruments after autoclave and remove residual disinfectants before coming in contact with body
  26. lactated ringers
    physiologic salt solution used to replenish electrolytes. used to to replace fluids lost from severe diarrhea or burns
  27. Dextran
    expands plasma volume by drawing fluids from the interstitial space to intravascular fluid space.
  28. glycine and sorbitol
    sterile nonconducting fluids used for irrigating body cavites, can be used with ESU. common in urologic procedure
  29. Coagulants
    Agents that promote, accelerate, or make possible blood coagulation
  30. hemostatics
    agents that enhance clot formation and reduce bleeding
  31. parenteral
    administrative route other than alimentary canal
  32. platelet aggretion
    clumping together of platelets
  33. systemic
    pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole
  34. thrombolytics
    agents that dissolve blood clots
  35. thrombosis
    abnormal formation or presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel
  36. which topical hemostatic agent should be handled using a dry instrument
    Avitene is to be used
  37. difference between monsels and lugols solution
    monsels stops bleeding so a biopsy could be damaged if accidently used instead of lugols which stains the tissue in the cervix.
  38. most common parental anticoagulant
    heparin sodium
  39. antidote for heparin
    protamine sulfate
  40. constrict
    decrease pupil as a way to regulate light entering eye
  41. cycloplegic
    paralytic agent used to dialte pupil allowing focus but paralysis of ciliary mmuscle
  42. dilate
    increase pupil as a way to regulate light entering eye
  43. gluacoma
    increase in ocular pressure
  44. miotic
    agent that cause pupil to constrict
  45. mydriatic
    agent that causes pupil to dilate
  46. NSAIDS
    used to prevent or treat cystoids maculer edem, iritis and conjunctivitis; used reduce post op inflammation following cataract surgery, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  47. OVD
    Opthalmic viscosurgical device
  48. Proteolytic
    Pertaining to breakdown of protein; enzyme that breaks down peptide bonds by hydrolsis
  49. causes glaucoma
    increased intraocular pressure, overproduction of aqueous humore and a drainage mechanism
  50. flurescein sodium
    used to diagnose corneal abrasions as foreign bodies will be surrounded by a green ring
  51. wydase
    used to prolong duration or improve effectivness of a block
  52. tropicamide/mydriacyl
    cycloplegic inhibits focus paralyzing ciliary muscle also called mydriacul
  53. atropine sulfate/atropisol
    mydriatic dilates pupil but paitent can focus after dilation
  54. pilocarpine hydrochloride
    miotic constricts pupil by acting on the sphincter of iris, after cataract its used to hold lens in eye
  55. neomycin
    antibiotic as solution or ointment
  56. lacri lube
    used to prevent corneal drying or damage by lubricating eye
  57. tetracaine/pontocaine
    local anesthetic
  58. balanced salt solution
    sterile physiologically balanced irrigant
  59. viscoat
    viscoeleastic agent used to expand anterior chamber prevent injury to surrounding tissue and protect cornea