chapter 21

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Author:
krys
ID:
79487
Filename:
chapter 21
Updated:
2011-04-13 22:06:41
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heart
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chapter 21
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  1. Pulmonary
    • CO2 - from heart to lung
    • O2 - from lung to heart
  2. Systemic
    • O2 in blood to body cells
    • CO2 blood back to heart
  3. Arteries
    carry blood away from the heart
  4. Veins
    return blood to the heart
  5. capillaries
    interconnect smallest arteries with smallest veins - thin walls- exchange vessels
  6. pericardium
    serous membrane lines pericardial cavity
  7. visceral layer
    epicardium
  8. pericardial sac
    parietal layer + connective tissue
  9. myocardium
    cardiac muscle tissue
  10. endocardium
    internal surface, simple squamous epithelium continuous with lining of blood vessels
  11. cardiac muscle tissue
    cells - small, interconnected with cell junctions (intercalcated discs) and gap junctions: ions and small moulecules pass
  12. fibrous skeleton
    Dense C.t, btw atria and ventricles, also form rings to stabalize heart valves, distribute force of contraction
  13. Atria
    • Receiving chambers
    • right atrium - blood from body
    • left atrium - blood from lung

    • receive venous blood
    • pump only to ventricles
    • thin muscular distensible wall
  14. ventricles
    • discharging chambers
    • right ventricles - blood to lungs
    • left ventricles - blood to body

    • send out arterial blood to pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems
    • have thick muscular walls
  15. Right atrium
    • receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava
    • atrial walls - contain pectinate muscles
    • coronary veins - returns blood from coronary sinus
    • foramen ovale (an opening during embroynic development) penetrates interatrial septum and closes after birth and became fossa ovalis
  16. Right ventricle
    • Right atrium to right ventricle through atrioventricular valve (AV valve)
    • opening - bounded by 3 cusps of fibrous c.t, braced by chordae tendineae - connected to papillary muscles

    • blood leave RV to pulmonary trunk after passing through pulmonary semilunar valve
    • trabeculae carneae - series of irregular muscular folds in internal surface of ventricle
    • moderator band - extends from interventricular septum ( separates 2 ventricles )
  17. left atrium
    • left and right pulmonary veins
    • auricle
    • left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid)
  18. left ventricle
    • aortic semilunar valve
    • ascending aorta
  19. Valves
    • allow blood flow in only one direction
    • 4 valves
  20. cardiac cycle
    • heartbeat to heartbeat
    • systole - contraction
    • diastole - relaxation
    • contractions controlled by conducting cells
  21. ECG
    • Pwave - atrial depolarization (atrial contractions)
    • QRS complex - ventrical depolarization (ventricular contractions)
    • Twave - ventricular repolarization (resting of ventricles)

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