Psychopharmacology 03

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Psychopharmacology 03
2011-04-13 23:53:28
Drugs Brain Behavior

scientific method, models of addiction, major and minor stimulants
Show Answers:

  1. What is the typical methylxanthine dose in a cup of brewed coffee?
    74-83 mg
  2. What is the typical methylxanthine dose in a cup of decaffeinated coffee?
    2-3 mg
  3. What is the typical methylxanthine dose in a cup of tea?
    24 -30 mg
  4. What is the typical methylxanthine dose in a soda?
    26 - 58 mg
  5. List several naturally occuring methylzanthines and their natural sources? (3)
    Caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa, and kola nut), theophylline (tea leaves), theobromine (cocoa)
  6. About how long does it take for a significant oral absorption of caffeine?
    30 - 35 minutes
  7. About how long does it take for plasma levels of caffeine to peak?
    About 2 hours
  8. What is the half life of caffeine? (range)
    3.5 - 5 hours
  9. What is caffeine's mechanism of action?
    Adenosine receptor antagonist; prevents break down of cAMP
  10. What is caffeine's site of action?
    Any adenosine receptors; stimulates DA release to prefrontal cortex
  11. Does caffeine have any medical uses and what are they?
    Yes. Headache medications and caffeine pills.
  12. Is caffeine self-administered by animals?
  13. Does caffeine show a conditioned place preference?
  14. What circumstances impact caffeine's ability to function as a reinforcer?
    Dose, context, and individual variability.
  15. What are some effects of doses up to 200 mg in humans?
    feelings of well-being, energy, motivation to work, self-confidence, affection, alertness, concentration, social disposition.
  16. Do animals prefer higher doses of caffeine?
    No. high doses are aversive.
  17. Is caffeine a strong behavior enforcer?
    Sometimes. Not all studies have shown this to be true. At high doses caffeine is very aversive.
  18. With caffeine, how do subjective effects vary with dose?
    Lower doses (as low as 25 mg) are preferred over placebo. Above 100 mg decreases self-administration. Doses from 400 - 600 mg are avoided.
  19. Describe some withdrawal symptoms of caffeine.
    Headache, drowsiness, fatigue, impaired concentration, depression, anxiety, craving.
  20. What are some effects of 1 gram of caffeine (10 cups of coffee)?
    Fever, irritability, flushing, anxiety, depression.
  21. What is the dose and symptoms of caffeine psychosis?
    About 18 cups; mania, violence, anxiety/paranoia. These disappear as drug clears the system.
  22. At what does can caffeine be lethal?
    5 - 10 gr; 30 - 100 cups.
  23. What are three groupings of major psychomotor stimulants?
    Cocaine, non-amphetamine stimulants, and amphetamine and amphetamine-like stimulants.
  24. What are examples of non-amphetamine major stimulants?
    methylphenidate, pemoline, sibutramine, modafinil.
  25. What are examples of amphetamine-like stimulants? (2)
    cathinone, methcathinone
  26. What is the stereoisomer of amphetamine? Is it more or less potent?
    Dexamphetamine; more potent.
  27. Where does cocaine come from?
    Coca leaves.
  28. What is the mechanism of action for cocaine?
    DA reuptake inhibitor; at high concentrations is a sodium channel blocker. Has NO effect on NT release.
  29. What is the mechanim of action for amphetamines?
    Stimulates DA release. Reverses transporter action. MAO inhibitor.
  30. What is the site of action of cocaine?
    DA transporters in the nucleus accumbens
  31. What is the site of action of amphetamines?
    DA neurons in the nucleus accumbens
  32. What is the duration of action of cocaine?
    • chewing: 45 - 90 mins
    • intranasal: 30 - 45 mins
    • intravenous: 10 - 20 mins
    • smoking: 5 - 10 mins
    • (overall, short)
  33. What is the duration of action of the amphetamines?
    Moderate to long; generally 0 - 360 mins
  34. What is the duration of action of caffeine?
    moderate to long. varies with individual.
  35. What is a common medical use of caffeine?
    Local anesthetic. Meth does not share this property.
  36. What are some common medical uses of the amphetamines?
    ADHD medications, narcolepsy, diet pills.
  37. Do cocaine and amphetamines produce similar effects and what are some of them?
    Yes; increased heart and breathing rate, decreased appetite, increase movement, endurance, and altertness, decreased fatigue; acute anxiety and fear.
  38. What is a common medical use of methylphenidate?
    ADHD medications
  39. Are major stimulants behavior reinforcers?
    Yes, they are powerful behavior reinforcers.
  40. What is a possible neurological disorder produced by the major stimulants?
    Scizophrenia; linked to long-term use and the dopaminergic system. Amphetamines may cause death of dopaminergic neurons.
  41. Rank order the psychomotor stimulants according to potency and duration of action.
    Amphetamines, apmhetamine-like stimulants, cocaine, non-ampethamine stimulants, caffeine, nicotine.
  42. What is the quickest route of administration of cocaine?
    Smoking (crack)
  43. Rank order the routes of administration of cocaine by onset of action.
    Smoking (8-10 sec), intravenous (30-35 sec), intranasal (120-180 sec), chewing leaf (300-600 sec)
  44. What are psychological effects of high doses of major stimulants?
    • anxiety, paranoia, insomnia, hypervigilance, Stimulant
    • Psychosis/Toxic Paranoid Psychosis.
  45. Rank the major stimulants by duration of action.
    methamphetamine, desamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine.
  46. What are four pharmacological approaches to treating cocaine addiction?
    Substitution therapies using methylphenidate, anti-craving medications (NMDA antagonists, cannabinoid antagonists), Co-morbidity using anti-depressants, cocaine anti-bodies.
  47. What behavior is enforced by contingency management?
  48. How is abstinence measured?