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What is the job of blood?
carries all substances that must travel throughout the body including nutrients, waste, horomes, electrolytes, antibodies, etc.
What does blood look like when it is oxygenated and not oxygenated?
- Oxygenated - red
- not oxygenated - blue
Where does blood travel?
from the heart in arteries, arterioles, & capillaries returning blood to the heart through venules and veins
What is plasma and what are the formed elements?
formed elements and liquid (erythrocytes-red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), & platelets
What % water is blood plasma and what are the three important proteins that blood plasma hold?
90% water containing over 100 different chemicals.
- Albumin-prevents water from diffusing out into the tissue
- Globulin-antibodies & proteins that carry lipids, iron, & copper
- Fibrinogen-involved in forming blood clots
What components of the formed elemebts are not considered true cells?
erythrocytes & platelets (THEY DO NOT UNDERGO MITOSIS)
What are the job of erythrocytes?
- transport oxygen & carbon dioxide
- - no nucleus or organelles
- - packed with hemoglobin (combination of proteins & iron molecules)
- - collect oxygen at lungs & deliver to tissues then carry CO2 back to lungs
What are the three important characteristics of red blood cells (erythrocytes)?
1. their convave shape allows for 30% more surface area for carrying oxygen
2. 97% of their content is hemoglibin used for binding both oxygen & CO2
3. They depend on anaerobic respiration thus they do not consume any oxygen
What is the job of Leukocytes?
true cells that fight disease
- - contain organelles & have ability to divide (Mitosis)
- - ability to travel through blood to a body region that is infected, exit blood stream, & enter site of infection
What are the 2 type of Leukocytes?
Granulocytes & Agranulocytes
What are Granulocytes?
- -larger than RBC's, but short lived
- -all these cells are phagocytic (wraps around membrane & brings it in)
What are the types of Granulocytes?
Neutrophil-most common, makes up 60% of WBC count, 2-6lobed nucleus, destroy cell walls of bacteria, first line of defense of an imflammatory response
Eosinophils-account for 1-4% of WBC in blood, bi-lobed nucleus, contain large vesicles that stain red, involved in ending allergic reactions
Basophils-most rare of all types, makes up 0.5% of WBC count, bi-lobed nucleus, release histamine & other chemicals that signal inflammation
What is Pus?
collection of dead neutrophils, WBC's, & bacterial debri
What are Agranulocytes?
do not contain granules of digestive enzymes
What are the types of Agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes-most important, makes up about 20-45% of WBC count, large purple nucleus when viewed under microscope, specialize in attacking specific foreign molecules reconized as an antigen
Monocytes-contain large nucleus that resembles a kidney, travel through blood stream & transform into macrophages once they enter the tissues
What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
B-Cells and T-Cells that produce antibodies or attack a foreign cell directly by destroying it.
- B-Cells - produce antibodies & respond to bacterial cells
- T-Cells - respond to antigens presented by the membranes of eukaryotic cells
What are Platelets?
small cell fragments that broke off larger cells called megakaryocytes or thromvocytes
Their specialty is to release chemicals that cause blood clots.
Note: if a healthy tissue is roughened by scaring, inflammation, or atherosclerosis, platelets will attach forming a blood clot called a thrombus
What is a thrombus?
a blood clot