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How are Tardigrades and Onychophorans phylogenetically related to arthropods?
tardigrades are sister taxa to arthropods and onychophorans are a sister monophyletic group
How is cryptobyosis adaptive for tardigrades?
- protection against decication when enviornment dries (water films).
- they become dormant untill put in water again
Contrast basic and applied research using a horseshoe crab example.
In the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay blue blood was extracted form horse shoe crabs and then tested and determined that in the presence of endotoxins from gram-negative bacteria the blood becomes gel-like
Briefly describe the body form, habitat and feeding ecology of the following arachnids:1. spiders 2.Scorpions 3. harvestman 4. ticks and mites
- 1. chelicera bear fangs, Cephalothorax & abdomen, predaceious fedding on mostly insects
- 2. Ceohalothorax & abdomen, Predatory feeding mostly on spiders & insects, tropical areas
- 3. Ceohalothorax & abdomen are joint & round, carnivorous & scavangers
- 4. terrestrial, aquatic, humans, plants, parasitic sometimes
What are the two main classes of the Subphylum Chelicerata?
what are the 2 main classe sof the subphylum Myriapoda?
Chilopoda & Diplopoda
Differentiate between The Class Chilopoda & Diplopoda?
- Chilopoda: centipedes, 1 pr legs per body segment, carnivores, wriggle
- Diplopoda: millipedes, 2 pr legs per body segment, herbavores, graceful
Predatory adaptions possesed by spiders & scorpions.
venomous apendages, pedi palp
How are tardigrades similar to arthropos?
hemocoel & ventrolater appendages
Importance of arachnids to humans?
- control insect population
- can be dangerous
- mites 7 ticks are a nusiance & can spread disease
- 1. old procuticle seperates from epidermis which secretes new epicuticle
- 2. new exocuticle is secreted as molting fluid dissolves old endocuticle, solution reabsorbed
- 3. old epi&endocuticleare discarded
- 4. new cuticle is stretched & unfolded & endocuticle is secreted
How do Crustaceans differ from insects? Chelicerates?
- 1. have 2 pr antennae & biramous appendages
- 2. lack chelicerae & pedipals, have mandibles & antennae
diagram path of blood flow iin an animal with a hemocoel.
- body tissue
blood moves slower
explain how excretion & osmoregulations are accomplished
- excretion is done by the antennal glad aka green gland
- nitrogenous waste are excreted by diffusion across thin areas of the cuticle
ancestral most widely occuring larva in Crustaceans
How are ancestral & derived body forms different in general? in Crustaceans?
- General: no tagmata, all apendages are biramous & look the same, not specialized
- Crustaceans: uropods, maxillaped, specialized apandages
How are Crustaceans imporatant to humans?
- important in food chain
- Fouling of boat hulls
- study for evolution
Explain how muscles control wings in insects.
muscle is attatched to an area of exoskeleton near wing (reslin). It indirectly controls the wing when it contracts & reoccurs. this method saves energy.
How is the trachea system adapted for the active lifestyle of insects?
it regulates and transports oxygen to allow more ATP to be produced.
Identify excretion organ and product & explain adaptational significance.
Malpighian tubules extract uric acid from hemocoel. It is more efficient and allows insects to live in a dry enviornment.
compound eye composed of photoreceptor units ommatidia
Compare holometabolus & Hemimetabolus metamorphosis.
- Holo: radical change, larve, pupa, adult
- Hemi: Nymph, adult Hormones(ecdyzone, juvenile hormone)
3 ways insects benefit & harm humans
- Benefit: pollenate crops, destroy other harful insects, produce bees
- Harm: destroy crops, carry diseases, are a nucianse
Explain how radial symetry & water vascular system has contributed or limited to the success of echinoderms.
- Radial: limits organisms activity, it makes them slow.
- water: is energy efficient & strog but not fast, good for bottom dwellers
Compare acorn worms & Pterobranchs in terms of anatomy & feeding.
- anatomy: small but have gill slit openings
- feeding: mucous covered structure, filter feeders
List and identify the function of the 5 chorodate characteristics.
- 2. dorsal hollow nerve cord
- 3. pharyngeal pouches & slits
- 4. endostyle or thyroid gland
- 5. post anal tail
for the clade Urochordata idetify/describe 1. common names, 2 vagility, 3 feeding methood, 4presence of various chordate characteristics in various life stages.
- 1. tunicates/sea squirts
- 2. no very vagile
- 3. suspension feeders
- 4. larva has all characteristics, adult has endostyle & pharyngeal slits
for the clade cephalochordata identify/describe 1. common names, 2. vagility, 3. feeding methood, 4. presence of chordate characteristics in various life stage.
- 1. amphioxus & lancelets
- 2. not vagile
- 3. suspension feeders
- 4. notochord,
Explain how the following were important in early vertebrate evolution:1. skeleton, 2. heart, 3. muscular pharynx & gut , 4. tripartie brain & sense organs, 5. neural crest
- 1. better for muscle attatchment to allow faster muscle contractions
- 2. to distribute blood
- 3. more efficient, can move larger material faster
- 4. tracking and sensing prey & predators
- 5. aid in development of specialized cells
describe ostrachderms & identify importance of bone in early vertebrate evolution.
ostrachderms are extinct, bone was adaptive for them because it it provided protection, stored minerals, & helped homeostasis
Identify atleast 3 adaptions that led to teleosts success.
- 1. reduction of bone in scales makes them lighter & faster
- 2. Elaboration of fins
- 3. more efficient swim bladder
Describe counter flow of water & blood across gill epithelia.
flows in opposite directions its the best way to transfer oxygen from water to blood, occurs by diffusion
describe problems & solutions of osmoregulation.
- Marine: sea water contains more salt then the fish.
- solution: drink water, secrete salt at gills, & excrete salt at kidneys
- Fresh: fish has more salt than the water.
- solution: absorb salt at gills & excrete diluteurine at kidneys
Differentiate anadromous & catadromous using fish examples.
- anadromous: spawn in freshwater, adult in ocean
- catadromous: spawn in ocean, adult in freshwater.
Explain benefits of migration in fishes
- migrate to take advantages of resources that are spatialy apart.
- reduces competition of same resources