GI Drugs

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xjessicax3
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7964
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GI Drugs
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2010-03-15 15:16:50
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Pharm test 2
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GI DRUGS-Pharm test 2
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  1. Antiemetics

    -Two major groups
    1. nonprescription
    __________ , bismuth, __________ solution (__________)
    2. prescription
    Antihistamaines, __________ antagonists, __________, __________, cannabinoids.
    Antiemetics

    • -Two major groups
    • 1. nonprescription
    • Antihistamaines , bismuth, phosphated carbohydrate solution (Emetrol)
    • 2. prescription
    • Antihistamaines, dopamine antagonists, benzidiazepines, glucocorticoids, cannabinoids.




  2. Brain Control

    -Two major centers:
    1. _____________ (CTZ) -near _______
    2. _______ center- in _______

    -CZ gets impulses from _______, _______ & from _______ center in ear, etc.
    - _______ stimulate CTZ which stimulates _______ center.
    Brain Control

    • -Two major centers:
    • 1. Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) -near medulla
    • 2. Vomiting center- in medulla

    • -CZ gets impulses from drugs, toxins, & from vestibular center in ear, etc.
    • -Dopamine stimulate CTZ which stimulates vomiting center.



  3. Non-Pharm Measures

    Used first when N&V occur
    -_____ tea
    -_____soda
    -_____
    -_____
    -_____
    -_____ & _____ toast.
    • Non-Pharm Measures
    • Used first when N&V occur
    • -Weak tea
    • -Flat soda
    • -Jello
    • -Gatorade
    • -Pedialyte
    • -Crackle & dry toast.
  4. Non-Prescription Antiemetics

    -Can be brought _______
    -Prevent motion sickness but minimal effect on_______, _______,_______ &_______.
    -Drugs include: _______, _______, _______, _______
    -These drugs inhibit _______ stimulation.
    -These drugs cause effects similar to _______
    Non-Prescription Antiemetics

    • -Can be brought OTC
    • -Prevent motion sickness but minimal effect on severe vomiting, chemo, RT & toxins.
    • -Drugs include: Dramamine, Marezine, Benadryl, Antivert
    • -These drugs inhibit vestibular stimulation.
    • -These drugs cause effects similar to anticholinergics
  5. Non-Prescription Antiemetics

    -________ & ________ act on stomach
    -Act by changing gastric ________ & ________ smooth muscle contraction
    -These drugs are not to used in the ________ of pregnancy because they may ________ fetus.
    Non-Prescription Antiemetics

    • -Pepto-bismol & Emetrol act on stomach
    • -Act by changing gastric ph & decrease smooth muscle contraction
    • -These drugs are not to used in the 1st trimester of pregnancy because they may harm fetus.
  6. Prescription Antiemetics

    1. Anti_______
    2. Anti_______
    3. _______ Antagonists
    -_______ (Compazine)
    -_______ (Haldo)
    -_______ (Reglan)
    -_______ (Ativan)
    4. _______ antagonists
    5. ____corticoids
    6. Cannabinoids (_______)
    Prescription Antiemetics

    • 1. Antihistamines
    • 2. Anticholinergics
    • 3. Dopamine Antagonists
    • -Phenothiazines (Compazine)
    • -Butyrophenones (Haldo)
    • -Metoclopramide (Reglan)
    • - Benziodiazepines (Ativan)
    • 4. Serotonin antagonists
    • 5. Glucocorticoids
    • 6. Cannabinoids (for cancer patients)
  7. Antihistamines and Anticholinergics

    -Atarax (________)
    -Scopolamine (________)
    -These cause ________, ________ mouth & ________ vision
    -Do not use in ________ Patients
    Antihistamines and Anticholinergics

    • -Atarax (antihistamine)
    • -Scopolamine (anticholinergic)
    • -These cause drowsiness, dry mouth & blurred vision
    • -Do not use in Glaucoma Patients
  8. Dopamine Antagonists

    -Block ________ receptors in ________
    -Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include ________ & ________
    -Used for N&V from ________, ________, ________ & ________ sickness.
    Dopamine Antagonists

    • -Block dopamine 2 receptors in CTZ
    • -Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include EPS & hypotension
    • -Used for N&V from surgery, anesthesia, chemo & radiation sickness.
  9. Phenothiazines- Thorazine & Compazine

    -These drugs inhibits the _______
    -In cancer patients given the night before the _______, the _______ of & for 24hrs _______.
    -Can cause _______, _______ & _______ effects ( _______, _______)
    Phenothiazines- Thorazine & Compazine

    • -These drugs inhibits the CTZ
    • -In cancer patients given the night before the chemo, the day of & for 24hrs after.
    • -Can cause hypotension, EPS & CNS effects (restlessness, weakness)
  10. Serotonin Antagonists

    -_________
    -Block _________ receptors in _________ & afferent _________ nerve terminals in upper _________ tract
    -Most _________ of all antiemetics for _________ induced N&V
    -Does not cause _________ but does cause _________, _________, _________
    Serotonin Antagonists

    • -Zofran
    • -Block serotonin receptors in CTZ & afferent vagal nerve terminals in upper GI tract
    • -Most effective of all antiemetics for chemo induced N&V
    • -Does not cause EPS but does cause headaches, diarrhea, dizzness.
  11. Glucocorticoids

    -_________ & __-medrol
    -Given ____, short term for _________N&V
    Glucocorticoids

    • -Decadron & Solu-medrol
    • -Given IV, short term for chemo N&V
  12. Cannabinoids

    -May be prescribed for _____ patients for those who do not respond to other _____
    -Not to be used in patients with _____ disorders
    -Also used to stimulate appetite in _____ patients
    -Causes _____ changes including _____ & _____ lapse, ____cardia, HTN, _____tension
    Cannabinoids

    • -May be prescribed for chemo patients for those who do not respond to other antiemetics
    • -Not to be used in patients with psych disorders
    • -Also used to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients
    • -Causes mood changes including euphoria & memory lapse, tachycardia, HTN, hypotension
  13. Diarrhea

    - _____, _____ stools
    -Causes are numerous including:
    _____, _____, virus, toxins, _____ reaction, _____ abuse, _____ syndrome, _____, _____ tumor &inflammatory bowel tumor & inflammatory bowel disease
    -Can cause _____, _____ imbalance & _____
    Diarrhea

    • -Frequent, liquid stools
    • -Causes are numerous including:
    • Food, bacteria, virus, toxins, drug reaction, laxative abuse, malabsorption syndrome, stress, bowel tumor & inflammatory bowel tumor & inflammatory bowel disease
    • -Can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalance & metabolic acidosis
  14. Non Pharmacology Measures

    1. Identify ______
    2. ______ liquids
    3. Oral solutions (______ , ______ , ______ )
    Non Pharmacology Measures

    • 1. Identify cause
    • 2. Clear liquids
    • 3. Oral solutions (Gatorade, Pedialyte, Rehydrate)
  15. Traveler's Diarrhea

    -aka ______ or ______ diarrhea
    -usually caused by ______
    -lasts ______ days
    -if severe treated with ______ & OTC______
    -teach travelers to drink ______, was ______, cook ______ & eat only well cooked ______.
    Traveler's Diarrhea

    • -aka acute or infections diarrhea
    • -usually caused by E.coli
    • -lasts 2 days
    • -if severe treated with antibiotics & OTC Imodium
    • -teach travelers to drink bottled water, was fruit, cook vegies & eat only well cooked meat.
  16. Anti Diarrheals

    -Classes:
    -1. _______ & opiate related drugs
    -2. _______ analogue.
    -3. _______
    -4. _______
    Anti Diarrheals

    • -Classes:
    • -1. opiates & opiate related drugs
    • -2. somatostatin analogue.
    • -3. adsorbents
    • -4. misecellaneous
  17. Opiates

    -Prototype: ______
    - ______ motility- may cause ______
    -can cause CNS ______ particularly when combined with ______, ______, ______
    -can cause drug ______
    -not to be used with ______ impairment
    -children and elderly can develop ______ depression
    Opiates

    • -Prototype: Lomotil
    • -Decrease motility- may cause constipation
    • -can cause CNS depression particularly when combined with alcohol, sedatives, tranquilizers
    • -can cause drug dependence
    • -not to be used with liver impairment
    • -children and elderly can develop respiratory depression
  18. Somatostatin Analog

    -________
    -used to inhibit ________, ________, gastrin, ________ secretions & ________ fluid.
    -________ smooth muscle contractility
    -frequently used for ________ diarrhea in patients with ________ cancer.
    Somatostatin Analog

    • -Sandostatin
    • -used to inhibit gastric acid, pepsinogen, gastrin, serotonin secretions & intestinal fluid.
    • -decreases smooth muscle contractility
    • -frequently used for severe diarrhea in patients with metastatic cancer.
  19. Adsorbents

    -act by coating the _____ tract wall
    -and absorbing _____ or _____ that can cause diarrhea
    -combined in _____ and are OTC drugs
    -_____, can also be used as an antacids.
    Adsorbents

    • -act by coating the GI tract wall
    • -and absorbing bacteria or toxins that can cause diarrhea
    • -combined in Kaopectate and are OTC drugs
    • -Pepto-Bismol, can also be used as an antacids.
  20. Constipation

    - _____ of hard fecal material in the _____ intestine
    -Frequent complaint of _____
    -insufficient _____ intake and _____ diet are contributory factors.
    Constipation

    • -accumulation of hard fecal material in the large intestine
    • -Frequent complaint of elderly
    • -insufficient h20 intake and poor diet are contributory factors.
  21. Causes of Constipation

    -1. fecal _________
    -2. bowel _________
    -3. chronic _________ use
    -4. _________ disorder
    -5. ignoring urge to _________
    -6. lack of _________
    -7. drugs ( _________, _________, some _________)
    Causes of Constipation

    • -1. fecal impaction
    • -2. bowel obstruction
    • -3. chronic laxative use
    • -4. neurologic disorder
    • -5. ignoring urge to defecate
    • -6. lack of excerise
    • -7. drugs ( anticholinergics, narcotic, some antacids)
  22. Non Pharmacologic Treatments

    -Increasing _____ in diet
    -_____
    -_____
    -routine _____ habits
    -normal - _____ day or a week
    Non Pharmacologic Treatments

    • -Increasing fiber in diet
    • -water
    • -exercise
    • -routine bowel habits
    • -normal - 1 to 3 day or a week
  23. Laxatives & Cathartics

    -Laxatives = _______ stool
    -cathartics= _______ to _______ stool with _______
    -(lax vs cathartic= _______)
    -purgatives are _______ cathartics = _______ stool with abdominal _______.
    Laxatives & Cathartics

    • -Laxatives = soft stool
    • -cathartics= soft to watery stool with cramping
    • -(lax vs cathartic= dosage)
    • -purgatives are harsh cathartics = watery stool with abdominal cramps.
  24. Laxatives

    -Types:
    -1. ________ (saline)
    -2. ________ (contact or irritant)
    -3. ________ forming
    -4. ________ (stool softeners)
    Laxatives

    • -Types:
    • -1. osmotic (saline)
    • -2. stimulants (contact or irritant)
    • -3. bulk forming
    • -4. Emollients (stool softeners)
  25. Osmotic (Saline) Laxatives

    -__________- salts or saline products, lactulose and glycerin
    -Osmotics contain three types of _________ salts:
    -1. _________ salts (Feet Phosphsoda)
    -2. _________ salts (Milk of Magnesia
    -can cause gas, _________, ______ pain, weakness, complete _______ block, hypotension and _______ depression.
    -3. _________ salts
    Osmotic (Saline) Laxatives

    • -Hyperosmolar- salts or saline products, lactulose and glycerin
    • -Osmotics contain three types of electrolyte salts:
    • -1. sodium salts (Feet Phosphsoda)
    • -2. Magnesium salts (Milk of Magnesia
    • -can cause gas, diarrhea, belly pain, weakness, complete heart block, hypotension and resp depression.
    • -3. Potassium salts
  26. Osmotic Laxatives

    -generally used to _____ bowel
    - _____ glycol ( _____ - miralax) can be used
    -PEG + electrolytes = _____
    -GoLYTELY requires consumption of __-__ liters over _____ hours
    -The solution is non _____ , non_____ that contain _____ & _____
    -can be used in presence of _____ or _____ disorders.
    Osmotic Laxatives

    • -generally used to prep bowel
    • -polyethylene glycol (PEG- miralax) can be used
    • -PEG + electrolytes = GoLYTELY
    • -GoLYTELY requires consumption of 3-4 liters over 3 hours
    • -The solution is non isotonic, nonabsorbable that contain potassium & sodium
    • -can be used in presence of renal or cardiac disorders.
  27. Osmotic Diuretics

    -Lactulose is non-_____ saline laxative that draw h20 into_____ to form _____ stool
    -used in_____ disease to lower serum _____
    -excess _____ can cause gas, diarrhea, belly pain, N&V
    -not to be used in _____
    -_____ acts the same way.
    Osmotic Diuretics

    • -Lactulose is non-absorbed saline laxative that draw h20 into bowel to form soft stool
    • -used in liver disease to lower serum ammonia
    • -excess lactulose can cause gas, diarrhea, belly pain, N&V
    • -not to be used in diabetics
    • -Glycerin acts the same way.
  28. Stimulant (Contact) Laxatives

    -_______ peristalsis by irritating sensory nerve _______
    -_______, _______, _______, _______
    -Most frequently _______ and _______
    -Gets results in __ to __ hours
    -Can cause nausea, belly_______, _______.
    Stimulant (Contact) Laxatives

    • -Increase peristalsis by irritating sensory nerve endings
    • -ExLax, Dulcolax, Correctol, Senekot
    • -Most frequently used and abused
    • -Gets results in 6 to 12 hours
    • -Can cause nausea, belly pain, weakness.
  29. Bulk Forming Laxatives

    -natural fibrous substances that form _______, ______stool through absorption of water into intestine-> ______ fecal bulk & peristalsis
    -defecation takes about ___ to __ hours but can take up to _ days
    -______ fluid intake -> intestinal ______
    -______, ______, ______.
    Bulk Forming Laxatives

    • -natural fibrous substances that form large, soft stool through absorption of water into intestine-> increased fecal bulk & peristalsis
    • -defecation takes about 8 to 24 hours but can take up to 3 days
    • -insufficient fluid intake -> intestinal obstruction
    • -FiberCon, Citrucel, Metamucil.
  30. Chloride Channel Activators

    -New category of ______
    -used for ______ constipation in adults
    -______ - FDA approved 2006
    -Opens chloride channels in bowel causing ______ intestinal fluid secretion & motility
    -Relieves ______, belly pain, ______
    -Not to be used if history of ______, obstruction, ______, severe ______.
    Chloride Channel Activators

    • -New category of laxatives
    • -used for idiopathic constipation in adults
    • -Amitiza - FDA approved 2006
    • -Opens chloride channels in bowel causing increased intestinal fluid secretion & motility
    • -Relieves constipation, belly pain, bloating
    • -Not to be used if history of Chron's, obstruction, diverticulitis, severe diarrhea.
  31. Emollients (Stool Softeners)

    -Lubricants (_______ oil) and stool softeners (surface acting or wetting drugs) (_______) used to prevent constipation
    -Used to prevent _______ at stool
    -Lubricants _______ water retention
    -_______ surface tension on stool.
    -These are used _______ other agents.
    Emollients (Stool Softeners)

    • -Lubricants (mineral oil) and stool softeners (surface acting or wetting drugs) (Colace) used to prevent constipation
    • -Used to prevent straining at stool
    • -Lubricants increase water retention
    • -Reduces surface tension on stool.
    • -These are used before other agents.
  32. General Indications

    -1. to _______ bowel for OR & diagnostic _______
    -2. to _______ elimination of noxious substances
    -3. to keep stool _______ when it is essential to avoid _______ and/or obstruction.
    -4. to expel _______ & toxic anti-_______ (except is _______ is needed)
    -5. to relieve _______
    -6. to overcome decreased motility caused by _______
    General Indications

    • -1. to prepare bowel for OR & diagnostic testing
    • -2. to promote elimination of noxious substances
    • -3. to keep stool soft when it is essential to avoid straining and/or obstruction.
    • -4. to expel parasites & toxic anti-helminths (except is culture is needed)
    • -5. to relieve constipation
    • -6. to overcome decreased motility caused by drugs
  33. Special Considerations in Laxative Use

    -Constipation in _______ can be due to a variety of reasons.
    -Better to try increasing intake of _______, fruit juice, _______, and _______
    -Elderly can't take laxatives too often as these can --> _______
    -In pregnancy constipation is _______ because _______ of uterus can cause decreased motility. _______ laxatives can lead to labor.
    Special Considerations in Laxative Use

    • -Constipation in children can be due to a variety of reasons.
    • -Better to try increasing intake of fruit, fruit juice, veggies, and fluids
    • -Elderly can't take laxatives too often as these can --> dehydration
    • -In pregnancy constipation is common because pressure of uterus can cause decreased motility. Harsh laxatives can lead to labor.
  34. When to Give with Caution or Not at all

    -1. _________ disorder like appendicitis or ulcerative colitis
    -2. Undiagnosed abdominal pain when giving laxatives could lead to _________
    -3. After surgeries like _________ of rectal vaginal fistulas
    -4. Bowel _________
    When to Give with Caution or Not at all

    • -1. Inflammatory disorder like appendicitis or ulcerative colitis
    • -2. Undiagnosed abdominal pain when giving laxatives could lead to perforation
    • -3. After surgeries like repair of rectal vaginal fistulas
    • -4. Bowel obstruction
  35. Ulcer Disease

    -Mucosal ________ is when pepsin is ________ and an acid-pepsin complex in gastric secretions --> mucosal ________
    -Peptic ulcer is an ulcer anywhere in the ________ tract
    -H. pylori is a gram ________ linked to peptic________ disease (PUD)
    Ulcer Disease

    • -Mucosal damage is when pepsin is activated and an acid-pepsin complex in gastric secretions --> mucosal damage
    • -Peptic ulcer is an ulcer anywhere in the GI tract
    • -H. pylori is a gram negative linked to peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
  36. GERD

    -aka reflux _________
    -treatment is similar to _________
    GERD

    • -aka reflux esophagitis
    • -treatment is similar to PUD
  37. Non Pharmacologic Treatment of PUD & GERD

    -Avoid _________ & ________
    -nicotine relaxes ________ sphinter --> reflux
    -weight loss-> ________ symptoms
    -avoid hot, ________, ________ food
    -NSAIDS & ASA should be taken with ________ or________ dose.
    -Steroids can cause ________
    -raise head of bed, do not eat before ________, wear ________ clothing.
    Non Pharmacologic Treatment of PUD & GERD

    • -Avoid tobacco & alcohol
    • -nicotine relaxes esophageal sphinter --> reflux
    • -weight loss-> decrease symptoms
    • -avoid hot, spicy, greasy food
    • -NSAIDS & ASA should be taken with food or decreased dose
    • .-Steroids can cause ulcers
    • -raise head of bed, do not eat before bedtime, wear loose clothing.
  38. Antiulcer Drugs

    -Seven Groups:
    -1. __________-decrease vagal activity
    -2. __________-decrease acetylcholine
    -3.__________-neutralize acid
    -4. __________ blockers
    -5. __________inhibitors-inhibit gastric acid
    -6. __________ inhibitor
    -7.__________ E1 analogue-inhibit gastric acid.
    Antiulcer Drugs

    • -Seven Groups:
    • -1. tranquilizers-decrease vagal activity
    • -2. anticholinergics-decrease acetylcholine
    • -3. antacids-neutralize acid
    • -4. H2 blockers
    • -5. Proton pump inhibitors-inhibit gastric acid
    • -6. Pepsin inhibitor
    • -7. Protaglandin E1 analogue-inhibit gastric acid.
  39. Antiulcer Drugs

    -Tranquilizers-________
    -________ vagal stimulation and ________ anxiety
    Antiulcer Drugs

    • -Tranquilizers-librium
    • -reduce vagal stimulation and decrease anxiety
  40. Antiulcer Drugs

    -Anticholinergics (__________ & __________ & __________)
    -Development of ______ blockers made these drug obsolete
    -they act by inhibiting acetylcholine block __________, and ______
    -They __________ gastric emptying time
    -Pro-banthine ________ gastric secretion and used to treat ________ ulcers.
    Antiulcer Drugs

    • -Anticholinergics (antimuscarinics & parasympatholytics & antacids)
    • -Development of H2 blockers made these drug obsolete
    • -they act by inhibiting acetylcholine block histamine, and HCL
    • -They delay gastric emptying time
    • -Pro-banthine inhibits gastric secretion and used to treat peptic ulcers.
  41. Antacids

    -neutralize ______ & decrease ______ activity
    -two types:
    -1. systemic effect-sodium bicarn can cause ______ & metabolic ______
    -calcium carbonate can cause ______
    -milk ______ syndrome
    -not to be taken with ______ products.
    Antacids

    • -neutralize HCL & decrease pepsin activity
    • -two types:
    • -1. systemic effect-sodium bicarn can cause hypernatremia & metabolic alkalosis
    • -calcium carbonate can cause hypercalcemia
    • -milk alkali syndrome
    • -not to be taken with milk or milk product.
  42. Milk Alkali syndrome

    -Chronic milk -alkali syndrome can result in metastatic _________ due to high serum ________ levels and relatively high ________ levels ( calcium times phosphate.) Irreversible ________ failure may result.
    -However, even severe renal failure may be completely reversible if milk-alkali syndrome is diagnosed ________
    Milk Alkali syndrome

    • -Chronic milk -alkali syndrome can result in metastatic calcification due to high serum calcium levels and relatively high phosphate levels ( calcium times phosphate.) Irreversible renal failure may result.
    • -However, even severe renal failure may be completely reversible if milk-alkali syndrome is diagnosed early
  43. Probiotics

    -The term "probiotics" refers to dietary ________ or foods that contain beneficial, or "good", ________ that are similar to those normally found in your body.
    -These microorganisms may provide some of the same health such as assisting with digestion and helping protect against ________ bacteria.
    Probiotics

    • -The term "probiotics" refers to dietary supplements or foods that contain beneficial, or "good", bacteria that are similar to those normally found in your body.
    • -These microorganisms may provide some of the same health such as assisting with digestion and helping protect against harmful bacteria.
  44. Antacids

    -2. Non-systemic
    -composed of _______ and _______
    -small degree of systemic _______
    -can cause diarrhea or constipation with_______ term use
    -take antacids __ to ___ hours after meals
    -mg are contraindicated in impaired _______ function
    -abuse can --> _______
    Antacids

    • -2. Non-systemic
    • -composed of aluminum and magnesium
    • -small degree of systemic absorption
    • -can cause diarrhea or constipation with long term use
    • -take antacids 1 to 3 hours after meals
    • -mg are contraindicated in impaired renal function
    • -abuse can --> encephalopathy
  45. H2 Blockers

    -______:
    -Block H2 receptors on parietal cells in ______ -> ______ gastric acid secretion
    -can cause headaches, ______, ___&___, hepatotoxicity, ______dysrhythmias
    -Do not take with ______
    H2 Blockers

    • -Zantac:
    • -Block H2 receptors on parietal cells in stomach -> decreased gastric acid secretion
    • -can cause headaches, confusion, N&V, hepatotoxicity, cardiac dysrhythmias
    • -Do not take with antacids
  46. Proton Pump inhibitors

    -_______,_______
    -Block the final step of acid _______
    -only works for _______ hours
    -take _______ meals
    -caution in _______ impairment
    -prolonged use may increase risk of _______.
    -may cause headache, dizziness, _______.
    Proton Pump inhibitors

    • -Prilosec, Prevacid
    • -Block the final step of acid production
    • -only works for 72 hours
    • -take before meals
    • -caution in liver impairment
    • -prolonged use may increase risk of cancer.
    • -may cause headache, dizziness, diarrhea.
  47. Pepsin Inhibitors

    -_________-sulfated sucrose and aluminum
    -Forms a viscous substance that covers ulcer to protect it from _______ & _______
    -can decrease absorption of other _______
    -can cause dizziness, nausea, _______, rash, _____ mouth, _____ pain & sleepiness.
    Pepsin Inhibitors

    • -Carafate-sulfated sucrose and aluminum
    • -Forms a viscous substance that covers ulcer to protect it from acid & pepsin
    • -can decrease absorption of other drugs
    • -can cause dizziness, nausea, constipation, rash, dry mouth, back pain & sleepiness.
  48. Prostaglandin Analogue Antiulcer Drug

    -_________ (Cytotec) _________ gastric acid secretion and _________ protective mucous.
    -as effective as _________
    -Frequently used with _________
    -can cause ____ pain, diarrhea, gas, constipation, _________ spotting.
    -Category "___" in pregnacy
    Prostaglandin Analogue Antiulcer Drug

    • -Misoprostal (Cytotec) suppresses gastric acid secretion and increases protective mucous.
    • -as effective as Tagamet
    • -Frequently used with NSAIDS
    • -can cause belly pain, diarrhea, gas, constipation, vaginal spotting.
    • -Category "x" in pregnacy
  49. Probiotics

    -In addition to supplements, probiotics can be found in such foods as ______, fermented and unfermented ______ , miso, and some______ and ___ drinks.
    -______ yogurt, is an example of a probiotic food
    Probiotics

    • -In addition to supplements, probiotics can be found in such foods as yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk , miso, and some juices and soy drinks.
    • -Dannon's Activia yogurt, is an example of a probiotic food.
  50. Probiotics

    -There is a growing public and scientific _______ in probiotics. Researchers are studying whether probiotics taken as foods or supplements can help treat or prevent illness.
    -There is encouraging evidence that probiotics may _______.
    Probiotics

    • -There is a growing public and scientific interest in probiotics. Researchers are studying whether probiotics taken as foods or supplements can help treat or prevent illness.
    • -There is encouraging evidence that probiotics may help.
  51. Probiotics

    -Treat __________, especially following treatment with certain __________
    -Prevent and treat vaginal _____ infections and ______ tract infections.
    -Treat _______ bowel syndrome (IBS)
    -Reduce bladder ________ recurrence
    -_________ the duration of intestinal infections
    -Prevent and treat inflammation following _______ surgery (pouchitis)
    -Prevent _______ in children
    Probiotics

    • -Treat diarrhea, especially following treatment with certain antibiotics
    • -Prevent and treat vaginal yeast infections and urinary tract infections.
    • -Treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-Reduce bladder cancer recurrence
    • -Shorten the duration of intestinal infections
    • -Prevent and treat inflammation following colon surgery (pouchitis)
    • -Prevent eczema in children
  52. Digestive Enzymes

    -Digestive Enzymes are made by ______
    -Digestive enzymes are secreted by the salivary glands, ______, ______, and the ______ intestine.
    -Technically, digestive enzymes are also considered to be ______ enzymes whose metabolic role is to ______ food.
    Digestive Enzymes

    • -Digestive Enzymes are made by organs
    • -Digestive enzymes are secreted by the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and the small intestine.
    • -Technically, digestive enzymes are also considered to be metabolic enzymes whose metabolic role is to digest food.
  53. Food Enzymes

    -Already present within the _____
    -Food enzymes exist naturally in _____ food.
    -If the food is cooked the high temperature involved in the cooking process will destroy the _____.
    Food Enzymes

    • -Already present within the food
    • -Food enzymes exist naturally in raw food.
    • -If the food is cooked the high temperature involved in the cooking process will destroy the enzymes.
  54. Digestive Enzymes

    -______ enzymes and ______ enzymes basically serve the same function, which is to digest food so it can be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the ______ stream.
    -They only actual difference between food enzymes is whether they come from inside the ______ or from ______.
    Digestive Enzymes

    • -Digestive enzymes and food enzymes basically serve the same function, which is to digest food so it can be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the blood stream.
    • -They only actual difference between food enzymes is whether they come from inside the body or from food.
  55. Digestive enzymes

    -______ food supplements
    -That claim to assist in digestion of food to ______ nutritional benefits.
    Digestive enzymes

    • -OTC food supplements
    • -That claim to assist in digestion of food to maximize nutritional benefits.

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