Biology Chapter2-Chemistry Terms

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79651
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Biology Chapter2-Chemistry Terms
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2011-04-14 15:27:50
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Biology Chapter Chemistry Terms
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Terms for Chapter 2
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  1. atom
    the simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element
  2. atomic number
    the number of protons in an atom
  3. bond
    attachments
  4. chemical reaction
    the process of breaking chemical bonds, forming new bonds, or both
  5. compound
    a pure substance that is made up of atoms of two or more elements
  6. covalent bond
    a bond that forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
  7. electron
    a particle with a negative electric charge that orbits the nucleus of an atom
  8. element
    a substance that ordinarily cannot be broken down chemically to form simpler kinds of matter
  9. energy level
    levels of energy in the nucleus
  10. ion
    an atom or a compound with a net electrical charge
  11. ionic bond
    a bond formed by an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions
  12. mass
    a fundamental property of an object generally regarded as equivalent to the amount of matter in the object
  13. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  14. molecule
    a chemical structure composed of one or more atoms
  15. neutron
    a subatomic particle with no electric charge
  16. nucleus
    in an atom, the core of protons and neutrons; in a eukaryotic cell, the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cell’s activities
  17. proton
    a subatomic particle with a positive charge
  18. activation energy
    the amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to start and continue on its own
  19. catalyst
    a chemical that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction but is not a reactant
  20. endergonic reaction
    reactions that involve a net absorption of free energy
  21. energy
    the ability to do work or cause change
  22. enzyme
    a catalyst, usually a protein, in living systems
  23. exergonic reaction
    a chemical reaction that involves a net release of free energy
  24. free energy
    the energy in a system avaliable for work
  25. oxidation reaction
    a chemical reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming more positive in charge
  26. product
    a compound formed by a chemical reaction
  27. reactant
    a compound or atom involved in a chemical reaction
  28. redox reaction
    a reduction-oxidation reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms
  29. reduction reaction
    a chemical reaction in which a reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming more negative in charge
  30. state
    solid, liquid, or gas depending on the rate at which the atoms or molecules of the substance move
  31. acid
    any substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions when added to a water solution
  32. alkaline
    refers to base
  33. aqueous solution
    a solution in which water is the solventb
  34. base
    any substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide (OH) ions when added to a water solution
  35. buffer
    a chemical that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to a solution
  36. concentration
    a measurement of the amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of solvent
  37. dissociation
    the separating of a molecule into simpler molecules, atoms, radicals, or ions
  38. hydronium ion
    the H3O+ ion
  39. hydroxide ion
    the OH- ion
  40. pH scale
    a numeric range that quantifies the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
  41. saturated solution
    a solution in which no more solute can dissolve
  42. solute
    a substance dissolved in a solution
  43. solution
    a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformally dissolved in another substance
  44. solvent
    in a solution, the substance in which a solute is dissolved

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