biology chapter 21

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biology chapter 21
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2011-04-14 21:14:37
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biology ch 21
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  1. the study of the structure of an organism
    anatomy
  2. the study of the function of an organism's structural equipment
    physiology
  3. an integrated group of similar cells that perform a specific function
    tissue
  4. four types of tissue:
    • -epithelial
    • -connective
    • -muscle
    • -nervous
  5. tissue that covers the surface of the body; lines organs and cavities within the body
    epithelial tissue
  6. cells of epithelial tissues:
    fall off and are continuously renewed
  7. have a sparse population of cells in an extracellular matrix consisting of a web of protein fibers within a uniform foundation that may be liquid, jellylike or solid
    connective tissue
  8. the structure of connective tissue is correlated with its function:
    to bind and support other tissues
  9. types of connective tissue:
    • -loose connective tissue (under the skin)
    • -adipose tissue
    • -blood
    • -fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)
    • -cartilage (at the end of a bone)
    • -bone
  10. stores fat, stockpiles energy and pads and insulates the body
    adipose tissue
  11. a connective tissue with a matrix of liquid; contains red and white blood cells suspended in plasma
    blood
  12. a rigid connective tissue; has a matrix of collagen fibers hardened with deposits of calcium salts
    bone
  13. consists of bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells called muscle fibers; has specialized proteins that contract when stimulated by a nerve
    muscle tissue
  14. attached to bones by tendons; responsible for voluntary movements; striated because the contractile apparatus forms a banded pattern in each cell or fiber
    skeletal muscle
  15. composed of cells that are branched and striated; found only in heart tissue; responsible for the contraction of the heart
    cardiac muscle
  16. named for its lack of obvious striations; found in the walls of various organs, especially digestive organs; involuntary
    smooth muscle
  17. makes communication of sensory information possible; is found in the brain and spinal cord; consists of a network of neurons
    nervous tissue
  18. consists of two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function; ex: heart, liver, stomach, brain, lungs
    organ
  19. the body's tendency to maintain relatively steady conditions in the internal environment when the external environment changes
    homeostasis
  20. the results of a process inhibit that same process, such as a thermostat that turns off a heater when room temperature rises to the set point; most mechanisms of homeostasis depend on this principle
    negative feedback
  21. the results of a process intensify that same process, such as uterine contractions during childbirth
    positive feedback
  22. the functional units of the kidney
    nephrons
  23. the human urinary system includes:
    • -the circulatory system
    • -the kidneys
    • -nephrons
    • -urinary bladder
  24. kidney failure can be caused by:
    one option for treatment is:
    • -injury
    • -illness
    • -prolonged use of pain relievers, alcohol or other drugs

    -dialysis-filtration of blood by a machine
  25. mainly feed on plants
    herbivores
  26. eat animals
    carnivores
  27. eat plants and animals
    omnivores
  28. another word for eating
    ingestion
  29. the breakdown of food to small nutrient molecules
    digestion
  30. begins the process of digestion; involves physical processes like chewing; also in the walls of the stomach
    mechanical digestion
  31. the chemical breakdown of food by digestive enzymes
    chemical digestion
  32. found in spit; breaks down carbs
    amylase
  33. longest part of the alimentary canal; the major organ for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream
    small intestine
  34. secretes juice that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum
    pancreas
  35. secretes bile, which is stored in the gallbladder and helps digest fat
    liver
  36. shorter, but wider; about 1.5 meters in length; water absorption/retension; the colon forms the main portion
    large intestine
  37. a measure of the energy stored in food and used in daily activities
    Calories
  38. the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree C
    calorie
  39. must be obtained from the diet; are in different proportions in different foods; can be consumed by eating milk, eggs, meat or a variety of plants, typically grains and legumes
    essential amino acids
  40. self starvation, even when a person is underweight
    anorexia nervosa
  41. binge eating, purging through induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives, and/or excessive exercise
    bulemia
  42. in the heart, it receives blood
    atrium
  43. pumps blood away from the heart
    ventricle
  44. circuit between the heart and lungs
    pulmonary circuit
  45. circuit between the heart and the rest of the body
    systemic circuit

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