the chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad.
the bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church.
a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
a person who occupies land or property rented from a landlord.
a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
a man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
a person who is learning a trade from a skilled employer, having agreed to work for a fixed period at low wages
the body of all people ordained for religious duties, esp. in the Christian Church
a French medieval lyric poet composing and singing in Provençal in the 11th to 13th centuries, esp. on the theme of courtly love.
a follower of the religion of Islam.
one of the two main branches of Islam, commonly described as orthodox, and differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs.
an adherent of the Shia branch of Islam.
the highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons
sultan of Egypt and Syria
king of the Franks 768–814 and Holy Roman Emperor
Pope Urban II
was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death. He is most known for starting the First Crusade (1096–1099) and setting up the modern day Roman Curia, in the manner of a royal court, to help run the Church.
Peter the Hermit
a priest of Amiens and a key figure during the First Crusade.
a legendary Persian queen and the storyteller of One
Thousand and One Nights.
King John (MC)
one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages.
word for God used in the context of Islam.
is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God
a Turco-Persian, Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries.