Management 201 Ch 13

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Management 201 Ch 13
2011-04-14 22:15:02
Management ch13 Individual Behavior

Management 201 Ch13 Understanding Individual Behavior
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  1. Organizational Behavior (OB)
    The study of the actions of people at work
  2. Organization as Iceberg
    • Like an Iceberg, OB has small visible dimension and much larger hidden portion.
    • Visible aspects: strategies, goals, policies and procedures, structure, technology, formal authority relationships, and chain of command
    • Hidden aspects: Attitudes, Perceptions, Group Norms, Informal Interactions, Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflicts
  3. Focus of Org. Behavior
    Three Major Areas
    Individual: contributions by psychologists:Attitudes, personality, perception, learning and motivation

    Group: Norms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflict

    Organizational: Structure, culture, and HR Policies and practices
  4. Employee Productivity
    A performance of both efficiency and effectiveness
  5. Absenteeism
    The failure to show up for work
  6. Turnover
    Voluntarily or involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
  7. OCB Organizational Citizenship Behavior
    Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization
  8. Workplace misbehavior
    An intentional employee behavior that is potentially damaging to the organization or to individuals within the organization
  9. Attitudes
    Evaluating statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events
  10. Congnitive Component
    The part of an attitude that's made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person.
  11. Affective Component
    The part of an attitude that's the emotional or feeling part.
  12. Behavioral Component
    The part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
  13. Job Involvement
    The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth.
  14. Organizational Commitment
    The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization.
  15. Perceived Organizational Support
    Employees' general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.
  16. Employee Engagement
    Employees being connect to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their jobs.
  17. Key Employee Engagement Factors
    • Respect
    • Type of Work
    • Work-Life Balance
    • Provide Good Service to Customers
    • Base Pay
    • People You Work With
    • Benefits
    • Long-Term Career Potential
    • Learning and Development
    • Flexible Working
    • Promotion Opportunities
    • Variable Pay/Bonus
  18. Cognitive Dissonance
    Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
  19. Attitude Surveys
    Surveys that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or the organization
  20. Personality
    The unique combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reactis to situations and interacts with others.
  21. Big Five Model
    A personality trait model that examines extraversion agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.
  22. MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • 1. Social Interaction: extrovert or introvert (E or I)
    • 2. Preference for gathering data: sensing or intuitive (S or N)
    • 3. Preference for decision making: Feeling or thinking (F or T)
    • 4. Style of making decision: perceptive or judgmental (P or J)
  23. Ex. of MBTI Personality Types
    INFJ (introvert, intuitive, feeling, judgmental)
    Quietly forceful, conscientious and concerned for others. Such people succeed through perseverance, originality, and the desire to do whatever is needed or wanted. They are often highly respected for their uncompromising principles.
  24. Ex. of MBTI Personality Types

    ESTP (extrovert, sensing, thinking, perceptive)
    Blunt and sometimes insensitive. Such people are matter-of-fact and do not worry or furry. They enjoy whatever comes along. They work best with real things taht can be assembled or disassembled.
  25. Ex. of MBTI Personality Types

    ISFP (introvert, sensing, feeling, perceptive)
    Sensitive, kind, modest, shy, and quietly friendly. Such people dislike disagreements and will avoid them. They are loyal followers and quite often are relaxed about getting things done.
  26. Ex. of MBTI Personality Types

    ENTJ (extrovert, intuitive, thinking, judgmental)
    Warm, friendly, candid, and decisive; also usualy skilled in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, but may sometimes overestimate what they are capable of doing.
  27. The Big Five Model (EACEO)
    A personality trait model that examines extraversion agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.
  28. E - Extraversion
    A - Agreeableness
    C - Conscientiousness
    E - Emotional stability
    O - Openness to experience
    E - Degree to which someone is cociable, talkative, and assertive

    A - Degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting

    C - Degree to which someone is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented

    E - Degree to which someone is calm, enthusiastic, and secure (positive) or tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative)

    O - Degree to which somone is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual
  29. Additional Personality Insights (LMSS)
    • Locus of control
    • Machiavellianism
    • Self-esteem
    • Self-monitoring
  30. Locus of Control
    The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.
  31. Machiavellianism (Mach)
    A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means.
  32. Self-esteem
    An individual's degree of like or dislike for himself or herself.
  33. Self-monitoring
    A personality trait that measures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors.
  34. Type A Personality
    Someone who is continually and aggressively struggling to achieve more and more in less and less time.
  35. Proactive Personality
    People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.
  36. Emotions
    Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.
  37. EI Emotional Intelligence
    The ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information.
  38. Emotional Intelligence (SSSES)
    • 1 - Self-awareness
    • 2 - Self-management
    • 3 - Self-motivation
    • 4 - Empathy
  39. Self-awareness
    Ability to be aware of what you're feeling
  40. Self-management
    Ability to manage your own emotions and impulses
  41. Self-motivation
    Ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures
  42. Empathy
    Ability to sense how others are feeling
  43. Social skills
    Ability to handle the emotions of others.
  44. Holland's Personality-Job Fit (RISCEA)
    • Realistic-Shy-Mechanic, farmer
    • Investigative-Analytical-Biologist
    • Social-Sociable-Social worker, teacher
    • Conventional-Conforming-Accountant, bank teller
    • Enterprising-Self-confident-Lawyer
    • Artisitic-Imaginative-Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator
  45. Perception
    A process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions.
  46. Attribution Theory
    A theory used to explainhow we judge people differently, depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
  47. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
  48. Self-serving Bias
    The tendency for individuals to attribute their success to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  49. Assumed Similarity
    The assumption that others are like oneself.
  50. Stereotyping
    Judging a person on the basis of one's perception of a group to which he or she belongs.
  51. Halo Effect
    A general impression of an individual that is influenced by a single characteristic.
  52. Learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  53. Operant Conditioning
    A theory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences.
  54. Social Learning Theory
    A theory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience.
  55. Shaping Behavior
    The process of guiding learning in graduated steps, using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement.
  56. Gen Y Workers
    Exhibit 13-8
    • High Expectations of Self:
    • They aim to work faster and better than other workers.

    • High Expectations of Employers:
    • They want fair and direct managers who are highly engaged in their professional development.

    • Ongoing Learning:
    • They seek out creative challencges and view colleagues as vast resources from whom to gain knowledge.

    • Immediate Responsibility:
    • They want to make an important impact on Day 1.

    • Goal Oriented:
    • They want small groals with tight deadlines so they can build up ownership of tasks.
  57. Managing Negativity in the Workplace
    • - Recognize that it is there
    • - Preventive and responsive behavior
    • - Prevent negative behavior by screening potential employees for certain personality traits and
    • - Responding immediately and decisively to unacceptable negative behaviors
    • - Pay attention to employee attitudes b/c negativity will show up there too.