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- Neo-classicism: music that assimilates pre-Romantic
- -Communists took
- over Stravinsky's heritage.
- Union did not sign any international copyright agreements until 1970.
- -In 1914 Stravinsky
- moved to Switzerland.
- -In 1920 he
- moved to Paris.
- -Wanted to break
- with his "Russian" style.
Composed by Igor Stravinsky
- -all music is
- Russian-folk based
- -all text is
- Russian folk-based
- -Last work for
- Ballet russes
- of orchestral ideas from Rite
Octet for Winds
- SOUNDS LIKE WIND ENSEMBLE, NOT THE CRAZY ONE LIKE SYMPHONIES OF THE WIND INSTRUMENTS.
- Octet for Winds
Composed by Igor Stravinsky
- III. Finale
- Abstract forms
- and harmonic forms.
- These ideas were
- rejected in 1920's works - Symphonies of
- Wind Instruments and Octet for Winds
- In addition to
- rejection of Romantic aesthetics, Romantic performance practices were also
- Stravinsky takes
- on role of performer.
- Symphonies -
- composed 1920 to memory of Debussy.
-Honegger: very influenced by German Romanticism.
French playwright and poet and artist. Had an influence on Les Six.
French Impressionistic painter.
- Premiere in 1917
- of Satie's Parade
Satie - music
- French composer, part of Les Six.
- -Relationship with Denise Duval.
Les mamelles de Tiresias
Composed by Francis Poulenc
- -Libretto by Apollinaire, who coined the term surrealism, wrote the play
- that the opera is based on.
-Premiered in 1947 at the Opera Comique.
Wrote libretto to Les mamelles de Tiresias (Poulenc) and coined the term surrealism, wrote the play that the opera is based on.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Expressionistic art.
Member of Les six.
- Influential on American composers, who were flocking to Paris to
- study with Nadia Boulanger, especially Copland
Saudades do Brasil
Composed by Darius Milhaud
- SOUNDS LIKE LATIN MUSIC ON PIANO. LISTEN FOR THE BEAT PATTERN. DEFINITELY A LATIN AMERICAN FEEL.
- Saudades de Brasil ("Memories of
- Brazil") - suite of piano pieces representing popular Brazilian dances and
- cities - 1918.
Chamber Symphony No. 3
Composed by Darius Milhaud.
- BASSOON, HIGH CLARINET (Eb?), LISTEN FOR THOSE TWO INSTRUMENTS UNDER AND SOMETIMES OVER THE STRINGS. FLUTE DOES CHIME IN. CLARINET REPEATS THEME.
- Chamber Symphony No. 3 - "Serenade" - polytonality - each instrument playing on its
- own key.
- Polytonality -
- simultaneous use of two or more keys,
- -in order
- for this to be perceptible by that listener, the constituent parts had to be
- extremely simple.
1918 – end of WWII
- -studies at Berlin Conservatory were inspiring sought out
- Schoenberg in Vienna to study with.
1921- study with Busoni
- -Works of the early 20’s – very modernist, Expressionist
- influenced, highly chromatic and contrapuntal.
- --reaction against culinary theatre (provoking thought), he
- wanted thought, not emotion.
---highly political individual, Marxist all through out.
- --Developed epic theatre. Wanted you to be completely aware
- you are watching a play. Advised this through “estrangenend” effect (checking
- of 4th wall) – actors would communicate to audience. Harsh lighting,
- unrealistic sets – actors would actually move sets in transition.
---Third person to first person past tense.
- ---Use of select film projections. Use of montage –
- different actions happening in different parts of the stage.
- ---persecution of the poor; main crime was to not have
- money. Critical of Capitalist society.
Played Jenny in Threepenny Opera, would become Weil’s wife
The Threepenny Opera
Composed by Kurt Weil.
- LISTEN FOR SOLO WOMAN. THE ORGAN IS PLAYING
- -Premiered in Berlin 1928
- -made Brucket and Weil very wealthy. Introduced the world to
- Lotte Lenya (TERM) (played
- Jenny, would become Weil’s wife)
- -Reverted to Mayartian sing spiel style – Band: 7 players
- doubling on 23 instruments.
Born in Brooklyn
-Young age family moved to Harlem
-Age 14 dropped out of High School
-“song plugger” in Tin Pan Alley
-became a rehearsal pianist on Broadway
-Jerome Kern, Victor Herbert, Irving Berlin.
Rhapsody in Blue
- -commissioned Gershwin for a work for solo piano and
- Whitman’s jazz orchestra.
- -series of Tin Pan
- Alley tunes that are tied together by development riffing.
--Theme 1 of Rhapsody has AABA form
--Ferde Grof orchestrated the work.
- --Premiered in 1924 – earned a commission from NYPO for a
- true 3 movement piano concerto.
Porgy & Bess
- Porgy by Dubose
- Heyward. (TERM)
Music by Gershwin.
-True Grand Opera – European style
-in 3 acts
-set in Charleston, South Carolina
- -Gullock: community with rice plantations was mostly African
- -Premiered in 1935, week preview in Boston, first concert
- run in Carnegie Hall. Ran 124 performances.
- -first musical with text
- completely by Ira Gershwin
Wrote play Porgy.
- -commissioned Gershwin for a work for solo piano and
- Whitman’s jazz orchestra. Rhapsody in Blue.
- "King of Jazz"
Tin Pan Alley
Area in New York City where street musicians would play instruments.
Street where musical theatre is often performed.
32-bar "chorus" form
- extension of 12 bar blues.
- Four 8 bar phrases organized as AA’BA
Also called the tin pan alley formula.
Shared his heritage with George Gershwin.
-both born of Russian, Jewish immigrants.
-originally “Kaplan” – Anglicized to Copland.
- -Copland’s parents ran a very successful department store in
- -Copland from an early age had access to best
- -Gershwin was largely self-taught, first only seeking formal
- training after he had become successful.
- -While both incorporated jazz elements, Copland was seen as
- an outsider’s view of jazz, while Gershwin was seen as more authentic.
- -Copland first really was taken by jazz not in America, but
- in Vienna.
-Only really incorporated jazz elements until about 1926.
-1910-1926: jazz influential works (not very successful)
-1925-1938: highly modernist works, expressionist.
-1935-1950: American period
-1950-1974: serialist period
Copland's attempt to have American sounding music, example being the American prairie.
Copland went to be taught here, he was on scholarship. Too much like the education he was getting in America.
-drew out from this early jazz style, Copland’s true voice.
-1887-1979: important in French musical life.
-sister of Lili Boulanger
- -gave up composition after sister’s death, become virtuoso
- organist and teacher of harmony.
- -Important as conductor, 1st female conductor of
- NYPO, Boston Symphony, Philadelphia Orchestra, London Philharmonic, St.
- Petersburg Philharmonic.
-Copland studied from 1921-1924 with her.
-Introduced Copland to Serge Koussevitzky.
Music for the Theatre
- LISTEN FOR TRUMPET, TROMBONE, BUT TRUMPET RHYTHMS. ALMOST FANFARISH. STRINGS STAY UNDER FOR A WHILE.
- -jazz rhythms,
- swing clarinet, ragtime.
-not felt by public or critics as “authentic” use of jazz.
- COMPOSED BY COPLAND
- SOUNDS LIKE PRETTY AMERICAN PRAIRIE MUSIC. LISTEN TO OBOE A LOT. FLUTE AS WELL. HORNS AS WELL.
-written for the Ballet russes de Monte Carlo.
-Agnes de Mille
-Carnal nocturne ‘slow’ section of the ballet
-doesn’t incorporate any folk tunes.
-incorporates folk elements.
Second Viennese School
The new school of thought of European music. It's three figureheads are Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Weber. The First Viennese School was Beethoven.
Suite, Op. 25
Composed by Schoenberg
- LISTEN FOR 12 TONE PIANO.
- -Exclusive use of 12-tone system
-Exclusive use of Baroque dance – suite forms.
- -I.Prelude, II.Gavotte Musette, III. Musette, IV. Minuet and
- Trio, V. Gigue
Variations for Orchestra Op. 31
Composed by Schoenberg.
- ESSENTIALLY 12 TONE MUSIC FOR FULL ORCHESTRA.
- Composed in 1928, apex of 12 tone system.
- “public” work in 12 tone medium.
- --last early
- 12-tone work with direct reference to earlier forms.
- -progress upon the German tradition was foremost in
- Schoenberg’s mind.
-maximized the saturation of aggregates in all dimensions.
-horizontal = melodic
- -increase the saturation of the aggregate by presenting it
- both horizontally and vertically.
In the Second Viennese School.
- tone technique is just that, not a style.
- Composed by Berg.
- String Quartet.
- --uses musical initials of him and a
--uses all-interval row form
- Composed by Berg.
- 12 TONE VIOLIN CONCERTO.
- --finally balanced tonal usage of row
- with non-tonal elements
- --commissioned by Louis Krasner
- --1933: Nazi's take over government in
- Austria and Germany.
- --Berg took commission $1,500 to pay
- past bills.
- --programmatic element: "To the
- memory of an angel"
--death of Manon Gropius
- --concerto is at once a traditional
- concerto - tone poem illustrating Manon's life.
- --two large movements, split into two
- sections each.
- -- I: Sonata form Andante; Ländler
- dance movement.
- -- II: Extended, accompanied cadenza;
- Adagio chorale variations.
Es ist Genug
--Chorale variations based on Bach's Es ist Genug. This is in the second movement of Berg's Violin Concerto.
-Likely Schoenberg’s first pupil.
- -Webern applied to Schoenberg’s ideas more strictly than either
- Schoenberg or Berg.
-Born Anton von Webern.
- -1918 after WWI with the dissolvement of Austro-Hungary, name was
- changed to Anton Webern.
- Wealthy upbringing (like Berg) and could assist Schoenberg
- --1902-1906 studied at
- the University of Vienna.
- --devoted to the study
- of Heinrich Isaac.
- --study of Flemish
- Renaissance music.
- --when he turned to
- serialism, he found many similarities between Flemish school of composition and
- the devices of serialism.
- Like Berg and Schoenberg, tonal compositions early on (up through his
- published Op.2)
Piano Variations Op. 27
- Work by Webern.
- LIGHTER 12 TONE PIANO. LIGHT THEN HEAVY, ALMOST LIKE LITTLE RAIN DROPS.
- -- In this work, the row is not symmetrical, but all the structures
- are one movement
- --Achieved symmetry in
- row selections in final works.
String Quartet Op. 28
Composed by Webern.
AS 12 TONE WITH STRING QUARTET AS IT GETS. IT JUST SOUNDS EXTREMELY 12 TONE.
1938, most concentrated dedication to BACH.
Turning a tone row upside down.
Playing row backwards
upside down and backwards
Moving any row form up a certain number of half steps.
where a tetrachord or trichord is manipulated through serial means to produce a 12-note row.
Variations for Orchestra by Schoenberg had the famous Bach Cipher.
B-flat, A, C, B natural.
Conductor in Italy during the Fascist period.
Composer in Nazi Germany.
Stayed in while Nazi party was in power.
Composed by Carl Orff
- LISTEN FOR O FORTUNA.
- -based on Pagan texts: non
- -huge organization of
- performing forces.
- -style was “Stravinsky” – white
- key neo-Primitive ostinato based.
The Nazi party propaganda showing the Germany under the Nazi's as the People's community.
Fled Nazi Germany and came to America.
Taught at Yale, music theory.
The craft of musical composition
Hindemith's newly derived tonal system was put into this text book.
Das Marienleben Op.27
Composed by Hindemith.
LISTEN FOR PIANO AND LADY (ALTO) SINGING.
Rainer Marie Rilke
Composed by Hindemith
- --viola/orchestra work for
- commemoration of death of George V in London.
--a rehash of material from Schwanendreher and Mathis der Maler and Lutheran hymns.
Music used for social or political purposes.
Hindemith was big into these types of compositions.
Karl Amadeus Hartmann
--attempted to revive the symphonic tradition in Germany
--both independently wealthy.
- --key figure in 1945 in revitalizing the works that had been
- banned by the Nazis.
--Josef Muller Brockmann: created abstract concert posters.
Term the Nazi party coined to refer to jazz and avant-garde music. Very negative.
in modern Czech Republic. Sudetenland.
- --set up in 1941, set up
- by USSR troops.
- --used so artists would play and sing for propaganda purposes.
- --liberated in 1945.
also a Czech composer.
- Freizeitgesaltung – what the Nazis set up to ‘regulate’ free time
- activities of the prisoners.
Three Yiddish Songs Op.53 – “The Birch Tree”
Composed by Viktor Ullmann
Czech composer in Terezin (1899-1944)
- --Brundibar- opera for
- children. Played 55 times in Terezin.
Overseer of the USSR Arts ministry.
- Had to be partyist: swear allegience to the
- communist party in some form.
- Idea-ist – easily grasped and contemplated by a
- common citizen. No specialized training necessary for understanding.
- Nationalist: based on folk tunes or folk tale.
- Rooted in a style as folk influenced by an average listener.
- 1926 – premier of his First Symphony. Led to world wide fame
- interms of form, neo-classical.
- Worked as pianist in a silent movie theatre.
Composed by Shostakovich
--absurdist/satirical opera based on Nikolai Gogol.
- --montage opera of all sorts of styles – jazz, neoclassical,
- atonality, popular song, folk music, etc…
82 singing parts
- Was banned even after very successful premiere in 1930
- (Leningrad/St.Petersburg). Not heard again till 1974.
Act I – Scene 2
The Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District
Composed by Shostakovich
- Hyper – Verismo opera : dealing with real life
- facts. Plot is very fast.
- Intended this as the 1st of 3 operas
- celebrating women’s rights in the USSR.
- Premiered in 1934 in Leningrad and Moscow.
- 1936 – Pravda (Soviet run
- newspaper): article “Muddle Instead of Music” – Published anonymously (some
- believe written by Stalin himself). Talks negatively of the opera. Harsh
- invective against MacBeth – banned.
- “edited” by
- Solomon Volkov
Talks about the finale of the 5th symphony.
- 1918-1935: lived outside the USSR. Didn’t come to USSR until the
- government convinced him that he would be wealthy and famous (1935).
- -Operas became Socialist works as well as his symphonies once he gets
- to his 5th symphony.
-Felt his artistic freedom was limited in the USSR
- Prokofiev’s 7th and 9th sonatas.
- -Dedicated to bringing music to the Soviet people, especially the
1938-1988: Principle conductor of the Leningrad Philharmonic.
- premieres of six Shotakovich symphonies 5,6,8,10 (9 and 12).
-Championed works and composers banned by Soviet government.
- -1974: he and his wife defect to the USA. Became conductor of National
- Symphony in Washington DC. Citizenship was revoked from the USSR. Didn’t return
- until 1990 to the USSR.
VERY JAZZY. PIANO. BY COPLAND.