MCB Exam 4: 4/13

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MCB Exam 4: 4/13
2011-04-14 22:23:32
MCB Exam

MCB Exam 4: 4/13
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  1. 3 types vaccines
    • Attenuated (live): weakened, results in mild infection
    • Killed (inactivated)
    • Toxoid: modified version of bacterial toxin (ie diptheria toxin)
  2. Type of immunity in which vaccinated individuals can infect those around them
    Herd immunity
  3. Type of vaccine which requires multiple doeses b/c have few antigenic determinants
    Toxoid Vaccine
  4. Technique which allows making of improved vaccines by putting diff org's (like bacteria's) genes into another, to become incorporated
    Recombinant DNA technique
  5. Problems w/vaccinations
    • Mild toxicity: most common
    • Anaphylactic shock: allergic rxns
  6. What is passive immunization and when is it given?
    • Performed antibodies
    • Given when protection against recent infection or an ongoing disease is needed quickly (rabies, venomous bites)
  7. How are passive immunizations made?
    Removing serum from infected human or animal donors & making an antiserum
  8. Part of antigen that antibody recognizes and binds to
  9. Immune testing uses ______ ______ and diagnostic use of ______ _____ interactions in blood serum
    • serology-study
    • antigen-antibody
  10. Types of Immune (Serological) Testing
    • Precipitation tests
    • Agglutination tests
    • Neutralization tests
    • Complement fixation tests
  11. The study of immune rxns: antigen-antibody interactions
  12. Test which is based on idea that antigens and antibody mixed form large macromolecular complexes in the form of white bands; this happens in the body, causing inflammation, such as inflam of joints, heart, etc
    Precipitation Test
  13. Test performed in lab to test for precipitates & detects soluble antigens (promotes phagocytosis)
    Ouchterlony test
  14. Occurs due to cross-linking of antibodies w/particulate antigens, visible to naked eye
  15. Agglutination vs Precipatation
    • Clumping of insoluble particles
    • Clumping of soluble particles
  16. Prevents binding to target site
  17. Type of test done to test if an individual has been exposed to a virus
    Neutralization test
  18. Type of test which uses antibody molecules that are linked to some molecular "label" that enables them to be easily detected; to detect antigens or antibodies
    Labeled Antibody Test
  19. Examples of Labeled Antibody Tests
    • Fluorescent antibody test
    • ELISA
    • Western blot test
  20. Test which labels cell w/antibody w/fluorescent colors, view on microscope
    Fluorescent antibody test
  21. Test which identifies antibodies, which indicates:
    -exposure & u made antibodies
    -what type of infection (Qualitative)
    -how much (Quantitative)
  22. Increased _______ can indicate allergies or parasitic worm infection
  23. Bacterial diseases often show increase in ______ and in ________.
    • leukocytes
    • neutrophils
  24. Viral infections show increase in _______.
  25. 4 types of Hypersensitivity
    • Type I (immediate)
    • Type II (cytotoxic)
    • Type III (immune-complex mediated)
    • Type IV (delayed or cell-mediated)
  26. Type of hypersensitivity which is localized or systemic which results from release of inflammatory molecules in response to an antigen
    Develops w/in secs or mins
    Type I (immediate)
  27. Type of hypersensitivity which results when own cells are destroyed by an immune response, often due to the combined activities of complement and antibodies; often is component of autoimmune diseases
    Type II (Cytotoxic)
  28. 2 Examples of Type II (cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity
    • Ex: destruction of blood cells from incompatible transfusion
    • Ex: destruction of fetal rb cells in hemolytic disease of a newborn
  29. ______ (1st or 2nd) time getting incompatible blood transfusion will have violent rxn
  30. Antigen that is common to the rb cells of humans & which transports anions and glucose across the cytosplasmic membrane
    Rh, antigen
  31. ____ individuals have the Rh antigen on their rb cells while _____ individuals do not
    • Rh+
    • Rh-
  32. Anti-Rh serum drug which is given to Rh- pregnant women that destroys any fetal rb cells that may have entered the body, causing desensitization of the mother and subsequent pregnancies are safer
  33. Type of hypersensitivity that is due to the formation of antibody-antigen complexes (immune-complexes); attracts inflammation and can cause systemic or localized rxns
    Type III (Immune-Complex Mediated)
  34. 2 Examples of systemic Type III hypersensitivity
    • Lupus: antibody against own DNA
    • Rhematoid arthritis: antibody against joint components
  35. 2 Examples of localized Type III hypersensitivity
    • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    • Glomerulonephritis
  36. Immune complexes circulating in the bloodstream are deposited on the walls of glomeruli of kidneys, damaging the glomerular cells which impedes blood filtration, which results in kidney failure
    (Inflammation & release of chemicals that destroy bvs in kidneys)