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Geo83
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asbogstudy4
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2011-04-15 11:00:07
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ASBOG Study Guide Chap Four
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ASBOG Study Guide Chapter 4 - Geomorphology
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  1. Three principal geomorphological processes
    Glacial, Karst, Eolian
  2. Four conditions necessary for karst terrain
    • 1. A soluable rock, preferably limestone, at or near the surface
    • 2. A dense rock, highly jointed and thin-bedded
    • 3. Entrenched valleys below uplands underlain by soluble and well-jointed rocks
    • 4. Region of moderate to abundant rainfall
  3. Terra Rossa
    a red clayey soil found mantling the ground surface and extending into joints or fractures resulting from surface or near surface solution
  4. Lapies
    grooved or fluted surface resulting from the solution of limestone at or near the surface in an area of high relief
  5. Sinkholes
    a circular depression that is commonly funnel shaped and car be a few feet to a hunder feet in diameter; formed by either 1. solution of the rock beneath the soil (doline) or 2. collapse of the rock over an underground cavity (a collapse sink)
  6. Sinkhole ponds or karst lakes
    A pond or lake resulting from the clogging by clay of a doline sinkhole that perches water above the water table
  7. Swallow Holes
    a hole in the bottom of a sinkhole which allows surface water runoff or streams to flow into the subsurface cavities
  8. Karst Window
    a hole in teh ground in whihc one can observe an underground stream flowing from one cavern to another
  9. Uvala
    an elongated kasrt window that has occurred by the collapse of an extensive portion of a subsurface waterway
  10. Polje
    a sinkhole formed by solutional modification of the rock in a previously faulted or folder structure
  11. Solution-subsidence trough
    a non-tectonic feature, up to 10 miles in length, resulting from convurrent subsidence and solution along joints or fautls
  12. Sinkhole or karst plain
    a limestone plain exhibiting sieve-like characteristics resulting from numberous sinkholes intercepting any surface waters and diverting them to subsurface channels
  13. Sinking creeks
    any surface creek or stream which disappears underground in karst terrain
  14. Sink
    the point at which sinking creeks end, often in an observable swallow hole
  15. Blind Valley
    a valley that ends at a swallow hole due to a prolonged period of upstream erosion above the sinkhole
  16. Solution valley or karst valley
    a transitional feature between surface and subsurface drainage in an area of clastic rocks
  17. Natural Tunnels or Bridges
    features produced by the undergournd flow of water in karst terrain. When the tunnel section collapse leaving only small segments, bridges are formed.
  18. Hum
    isolated hill remnants due to erosion by solution in karst terrain
  19. Cavern
    large caves that may extend in any direction, have one or several levles, and are created by solution of limestone along joints and bedding planes
  20. Travertine
    a deposit of calcium carbonate precipitate that can be found in limesone caverns coating the cavern walls, floors, and ceilings
  21. Dripstone
    the travertine deposits that result from the calcium carbontate-rich water dripping from the celing of a cave or cavern. Stalactites - downward protrusions; Stalagmites - upward protrustion
  22. Helicite
    an irregular twiglike deposit that forms in a cavern where there is not enough water to form drips but the surface remains damp or the water comes from a tiny hole or tube within the deposit and the water flows out the end
  23. Conditions that classify a snow or ice field as a glacier
    • 1. Large accumulation or mass of ice and snow
    • 2. Located on or principally on land
    • 3. Formed by compaction and recrystallization of snow
    • 4. Evidence of past or present movement
    • 5. Remains from year to year
  24. Cirque
    a horseshoe-shaped hollow high on a mountainside that was created by the erosive action at the head of a glacier
  25. Tarn
    a small deep lake formed in a cirque basin
  26. Glacial polish
    a smooth surface produced on bedrock by abrasion by the movement of a glacier
  27. Striations
    lines scraped into the bedrock by rocks being carried along at the base of the glacier
  28. Glacial trough (U-shaped valley)
    a steep-sided valley that extends down from the cirque in which glacial action has widened and deepened an existing valley
  29. Glacial steps or stairway
    a series of cross-valley that extends down from the cirque which are characterized by a relatively flat floor or with a slight upvalley slope broke by steeper sections stepping down valley
  30. Paternoster lakes
    a series of chain of lakes occupying the glacial steps
  31. Hanging valley
    a U-shaped glacial tributary valley truncated by a deeper U-shaped glacial main valley
  32. Arete
    a jagged sharp sawtooth-like ridge that results from the growth of cirques on opposite sides of a mountain ridge by alpine glaciation
  33. Col
    a narrow sharpe-edged pass or sag between cirque head and side walls along an arete
  34. Horn
    a jagged sharp peak at the high point in an arete which has been sculpted by the erosional action of three or more cirques
  35. Monuments (tinds)
    a horn that has been isolated by the lateral intersection of cirques
  36. Truncated or faceted spur
    a ridge, which once protruded intor a pre-glacial valley, that has been truncated by the abrasion of glacial action as it straightened the valley
  37. Fjords, fiards (fjards)
    A submerged glacial trough or valley at its seaward end resulting from the raising of se level as the glaciers melted
  38. Trough Lake
    similar to fjords in that they consist of a long glacial trough an contain water but are found above sea level
  39. Moraine
    a mound or ridge compose of accumulated glacial drift or till deposited directly by the glacier. Composed of heterogeneous collection of unsorted and unstratified clay, silt, sand, gravel and boulders
  40. End (terminal) moraine
    an arcuate moraine that has been deposited at the terminus of the glacier, marking the furthest progression of the glaciation
  41. Lateral moraine
    a linear moraine located along the edge of a valley glacier and composed of materials deposited on the glacier from the valley walls
  42. Medial moraine
    a linear moraine paralleling the valley walls which occurs when two valley glaciers merge joining the two inside lateral moraines
  43. Valley train
    a long, narrow deposit of outwash (sand and gravel), deposited by glacial meltwater, which begins at the end moraine and extends downvalley
  44. Lacustrine plains
    a plain that has fromed by the filling of a lake with lake sediments and alluvium which has been deposited along the margin of the glacier
  45. Knob & basin topography
    alos called knob-and-kettle topography, a hummocky landscape consisting of knolls or mounds of glacial drift in an area also interspersed with basins and kettles
  46. Ice-scoured plain
    an assemblage of erosional landforms on exposed bedrock resulting from the flow of an ice cap
  47. Roche moutonnee
    an elongated bedrock know which is oriented parallel to the direction of glacial flow and has a smooth rounded upstream end and usually a steep rough downstream end where the glacier plucked out the rock as it moved away
  48. Steamlined topography (mammillated surface)
    a serioes of smooth rounded erosional rock mounds alternating with parallel valleys resulting from the smoothing off of a mountainous region by the ice cap
  49. Arcuate terminal moraine (Continental i.e. Ice Caps)
    similar to that found in alpine glaciation
  50. Till plain
    also called ground moraine, deposition by an ice cap of glacial till forming a relatively flat to undulated surface which covers an extensive area and buries the preglacial topography
  51. Drift
    refers to all rock and associated material that has been carried by and deposited by a glacier, glacial ice, or water running from a glacier
  52. Till
    an unsorted, unstratified glacial deposit composed of a heterogeneous miexture of clay, silt, sand, gravel and boulders by an ice cap
  53. Ground moraine
    used interchangeably with till plain
  54. Swell & swale topography
    a till rich in clay may result in a gently undulating surface which often is also found in areas that have had multiple glaciations
  55. Drumlin
    an elongated ellipsoidal feature whihc can be composed of a wide variety of till materials ranging from clays to relatively large rock fragments
  56. Outwash plain
    a broad plain composed of outwash, stratified debris that is carried by meltwater streams both in front of and beyond the terminal or end moraine
  57. Esker
    serpentine-shaped deposits develop as the load carried by the streams flowing beneath, within, and above the glacier, once it has beomce stagnant, is dropped
  58. Kettle
    a depression in the postglacial terrain formed by the melting of a large stagnant ice block allowing the sttlement of the overlying glacial drift
  59. Kame & kame terrace
    a small hummock or terrace of ice-contact drift that has resulted from the deposition of sediment either in crevasses at the surface of the glacier, on the irregular surface of stagnant glaciers, or often from streams flowing at the edge of the glacier along the contact of the ice with the valley wall
  60. Yardang
    a long, jagged, sharp-edged ridge between troughs, oriented with the direction of the prevailing winds, in an arid region which is underlain by relatively weak materials
  61. Ventifacts
    stones that have been abraded by the wind on at least one side so they are polished or faceted
  62. Pedestal rocks
    commonly called balanced rocks, these formations are a result of a combination of wind and water erosion (deflation) in an area where there are resistant rocks capping weaker more easily eroded rocks
  63. Blowout
    a depression caused by deflation in an area where eithere migrating dunes exist or a small break develops in the surficial integrity of a stabilized windblown deposit or in some cases the underlying material is composed of a poorly to non-indurated material
  64. Desert Pavement
    sometimes called desert armor, is a name applied to the relatively flat residual surface or closely-packed , wind-polished stones
  65. Ripples and Ridges
    small scale features that are usually found on the surfaces of snad deposits resulting from the flow of wind or water over the surface
  66. Sand shadows & sand drifts
    both form as a result of an obstruction in the path of migrating sands. Sand shadow forms behind the obstruction where the velocity o the wind declines causing the sand to drop; Sand drifts develop in the lee (downwind side) of a gap where the velocity of the wind delcines after passing through the gap
  67. Dunes
    sand that is piled up as a result of transportation by the wind of sand-sized particles
  68. Barchan dune
    crescent-shaped, tails to leeward, rarely vegetated
  69. Parabolic dune
    crescent-shaped, tails to windward, often associated with some vegetative cover
  70. Transverse dune
    perpendicular to the wind, exhibits the traditional gentle windward slope and the steep slip face nearing the angle of repose. Both Barchan and Parabolic are varieties of the transverse dune
  71. Longitudinal or seif
    parallel ot the wind, thought to develop in areas in which the prevailing wind causes the dunes to lengthen in the direction of the wind but the dune height increases due to the corss winds during periods of irregular wind flow
  72. Whaleback or sand levees
    a very large hill or ridge of sand elongated parallel to the prevailing wind; usually 100+ miles long, couple miles wide and 150+ ft high
  73. Undulations
    similar to whaleback but much smaller
  74. Sandsheets
    extensive flat areas covered with a coarse-grained snad that does not form dunes, but typically are covered with ripple marks
  75. Loess
    wind-blown silt that is calcareous, homogeneous, and permeable. Loess covers extensive areas in the Pacific Northwest and Mississippi Valley regions

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