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Physical factors of Malaria
- Landscape where water can lie in stagnant pools-eg pot holes, gem pits, latrines , empty cans, paddy fields to allow the Anopheles mosquito to breed
- Summer temperatures between 20-30 degrees and humidty rates of over 60%
Human factors of Malaria
- human settlements close to the breeding ground of the mosquito
- houses that let flies in, sleeping in the open in overcrowded unsanitary conditions
- opening up new land to rice cultivation
How to combat malaria
- Kill the vector- spray the walls with long lasting insecticides-DDT or Malathion
- Sleeping under nets and the use of slow burning insecticide coils to reduce contact
- Draining the breeding ground of the mosquito
- spray breeding areas with larvaecide or bomb it with with mustard seed to suffocate the mosquito larvae
- inject coconuts with BTI bacteria and leave for a few days before breaking open and throwing into ponds and posining the larvae
- use biological control- eg introuduce fish to eat larvae
- Kill the parasite using man made drugs-eg Choloroquin, Fansidar and malarone
Kill the vector
- Spraying the walls with long lasting insecticides -DDt and Malathion
- This was initially very effective but the insects became resistant to them and new insecticides are constantly having to be introduced
- people resisted malathion in their houses as it stained the walls and smelled of cabbages
- DDT was also found to be very persistant in the enviroment and had other side effects on the eggs of birds of pray
Sleeping and under nets and the use of slow burning insecticide coils
- Very cheap and very effective
- not complicated to use
- cuts down fly contact
- only costs $2
Draining the breeding ground of the mosquito
- very effective in urban areas where drainage and road surfacing has improved and regular rubbish removal e.g tyres and tins are not allowed to collect rainwater.
- however this may not be possible if there are large numbers of irrigation ditches and paddy fields in rural areas.
Spray breeding areas with larvaecide or bomb it with mustard seed to suffoacte the mosquito larvae
Can be quite effective, but larvae are showing resistance and it will also kill usefull insect and fish life in the ponds.
Inject coconuts with BTI bacteria and leave for a few days before breaking opend and throwing into ponds and posining the larvae
good way of controlling the larvae numbers but is dependant on a cheap supply of coconut and the technical expertise
Use biological controls eg fish to control larvae
Only keep the population of larvae in check and care must be taken not to introduce a new pest -eg cane toad
Kill the parasite with drugs
- chloroquin, fansidar and malarone
- At first very successfull but parasite has become resistant aand new drugs have to be found.
- The use of drugs to prevent catching disease has also incread reasistance
- Drug companies more interseted in HIV