Human Bio Sec 4

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Human Bio Sec 4
2011-05-03 00:57:26
Blood Circulatory system Lymphatic

Blood, circulation, respiratory, skeletal
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  1. Function of Blood
    Carries O2 and Co2 to lungs as well as delivers nutrients throughout body and removes waste.
  2. Transportation of Blood
    Circulates through vessels.
  3. Protection of Blood
    White blood cells provide immune deffense against bacteria/infections by phagosytosis--- platelets help clot damaged vessels (scabs)
  4. Regulation of Blood
    body tempurature, circulation and ph balance buffers body fluids
  5. Compostion of Blood
    plasma, sugars, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, ions(Na+, Potassium, Cl-, gases, Co2, nitrogen, hormones, proteins, platelets
  6. Plasma
    55% waterbased, straw color w/o RBC's, plasma proteins maintain isotonicity of blood cells
  7. Red Bone Marrow
    inside cavities of bone--where RBC is produced
  8. Hematopoetic Stem cells
    Precursors to all blood cells. Immature blood cells stimulated by kidney hormone Erythropoetin (EPO)
  9. Platelets
    • Essential to blood clotting
    • 1)Blood vessel is damaged
    • 2)Vessel constricts: Platelets rush to plug hole
    • 3)Platelets attract other Platelets and stick together
    • 4)Fibrin web traps blood cells forming clot
    • 5)Clot later dissolves and vessel is repaired
  10. Blood Clotting
    Platelets form together and plug damaged vessels.
  11. White Blood Cells
    Contains nucleus. Circulate and survey for foreign cells. Amount makes only 1% unless infection occurs. Migrates to damaged area like tissue damage or inflammation and eats (phagocytosis).
  12. Response to infection
    White blood cells phagocytosis.
  13. Red Blood Cells
    Contains no nucleus. Picks up O2 and delivers to tissue and cells. AKA oxygen packets. Old RBC's go to liver and spleen where iron and proteins are recycled. RBC production stimulated by hormones (EPO) when O2 levels in tissue are low. Contains Hemoglobin
  14. Hemoglobin
    45% of blood aand lives 120 days. Protein within RBC's and iron within Hemo binds oxygen. Each RBC contains about 280 million hemoglobin cells. Each Hemoglobin cell holds about 4 O2 molecules.
  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
    colorless, odorless, tasteless toxic gas that prevents sufficient oxygen supply through bloodstream. because of hemoglobin in RBCs the RBC's bind well to carbon monoxide better than oxygen and do not let go.
  16. Blood Types
    A, AB, O and RH factor antigens on surface of blood cells that bind with matching antibodies and appropriate RH protein. RH relates to + or -. Donation depends on acceptable blood type.
  17. Red Blood Disorders
    Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Pernicious Anemia
  18. Blood Doping
    Boosts amount of red blood cells, increases energy by increase of O2. Injection of EPO(erythropoietin hormone) or by injection of about 2 pints of blood (own person's) that has been drawn approx. 2 weeks before the day of performance.
  19. Erythropoeitin
    Aka hemapoietin hormone produced by kidney responsible for stimulating the production of RBC's.
  20. Aspirin
    Prevents platelet aggregation (thins blood). Can be good or bad depending on problem. If problems with clotting (prone to heart attacks) then usually prescribed.
  21. Anemia
    reduced ability to carry O2 and common disorder. O2 reduced either because little hemaglobin or few red blood cells or both. Insufficient iron to body.
  22. Sickle Cell Anemia
    Genetic disorder, affects mostly African Americans in the US. Reduced amount of O2 causes fatigue and breathlessness. RBCs mishapen and can cause them to be lodged in vessels which are often painful.
  23. Pernicious Anemia
    Rare disorder where body cannot absorb B12 and causes general nervous system problems.
  24. Hemalytic Disease of Newborn
    Anti Rh destroys fetuses red blood cells. If father is Rh+ and mother is Rh - then most likely Rh + is passed to fetus.
  25. What blood type is a universal donor and why?
    Type O because it does not have A or B antigens.
  26. What blood type is the universal receiver and why?
    Type AB because it has both AB antigens and O can be accepted by any blood type.
  27. Circulatory System
    • heart pumps blood to the lungs firs(pulmonary circuit), lungs pick up oxygen and body delivers 02 to tissues
    • second blood goes to body(systemic circuit)
    • third is blood goes back to heart(coronary)
  28. Arteries
    • Carries blood away from the heart
    • Elastic so it can stretch when carrying oxygen
  29. Vasoconstriction
    Constricts to free blood to the body
  30. Vasodilation
    Dilates to accommodate blood from the heart
  31. Arterioles
    Small arteries that take blood away from the heart(end of arteries)
  32. Only arteries and arterioles do this to get blood around.
    Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
  33. Blood pressure homeostasis
    • Stimulated by kidney
    • Blood vessels constrict when blood pressure drops
    • Blood vessels dilate when pressure is high
  34. Following a hemmmorhage(injury)
    The blood constricts
  35. Tempurture regulation
    When cold outside the body, blood constricts in less important parts to keep important parts warm--cold toes, nose, ears, etc..
  36. For treatment of various blood related conditions
    • Vasodilators--for high blood pressure
    • Vasoconstrictors--for stopping hemmorhaging (also applying pressure to injuries like cuts)
  37. Capillaries
    • Where arteries go (tiniest veins)
    • Blood can only travel in a single file
    • Connect arterioles to venules
    • Where the exchange of nutrients and waste between blood and tissues, ie glucose, hormones
    • Close to nearly every cell
    • Capillaries are made of beds
    • Precapillary sphinters
  38. Veins
    • Returns blood to the heart
    • Muscular and stiff
    • its where low blood pressure is
  39. How is blood returned to the heart via veins.
    • Constriction of skeletal muscles pushes blood throughout body
    • Valves prevent backflow so blood goes in one direction(varicose veins are broken valves)
  40. Heart
    • Pumps blood to lungs
    • via Atria, Ventricles, Valves and blood vessels
    • Blood flows in from the vena cava into the right atrium and out right ventricle to lungs. Blood goes into heart through left atrium to left ventricle and out the aorta to the body.
  41. Atria
    • Are the chambers at the top of the right and left of the heart. Both empty into same side ventricles(right to right v and left to left v)
    • Contracts separate from the ventricles
    • Right atrium brings deoxygenated blood from the body
    • Left Atrium brings oxygenated blood back into the heart
  42. Ventricles
    • Chambers at the bottom left and right of the heart
    • Right ventricle directs blood to the pulmonary aorta which goes to the lungs
    • Left ventricle directs blood out the aorta which goes to the body
  43. Blood vessels in the heart
    Enters on the Atria
  44. Valves
    Little doorways that direct blood flow in one direction
  45. Right Atrium
    Tricuspid(lub sound)
  46. Left Atrium
    bicuspid(dub sound)
  47. Right Ventricle
    Pulmonary semilunar cuspid(drains blood)
  48. Left ventricle
    Aortic semilunar valve
  49. Pulmonary circuit
    Blood flow to/from lungs(vena cava)
  50. Systemic Circuit(think whole system)
    Blood flow through the body(aorta)
  51. Coronary Circulation
    Blood in blood vessels of/throughout the heart
  52. Cardiac cycle sequence of events
    • Diastole when the heart is relaxed and atria is filling
    • Atrial systole when the heart contracts and forces blood into ventricles
    • Ventricular systole contracts to force blood to lungs and the rest of the body
    • ordered closing of valves with heart forces blood in appropriate direction
  53. Blood Pressure
    • Force exerted by blood against walls of blood vessels
    • Systolic is pressure during contraction(arteries)
    • Diastolic pressure is during rest(veins)
    • Doctor measures pressure in arteries
    • Number corresponds to systolic over diastolic
    • 120 over 80 is normal
  54. Circulatory system disorders
    Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Heart Attack
  55. Hypertension
    • High blood pressure
    • working harder to pump blood and gets larger
    • damages glomerulos in kidney
    • prevented by managing weight, not smoking and limiting salt consumption
  56. Atherosclerosis
    • Hardening and thickening of walls of vessels due to build up of fat
    • Atherosclerotci plague
    • a rupture can trigger formation of blood clots
    • surgery called angioplasty stent opens arteries (tube inserted and expands)
  57. Mycocardial Infarction
    blood clot
  58. Lymphatic System
    • Made up of vessels like veins (not elastic like arteries) with valves and carries fluid out of arteries through capillaries
    • Maintains balance of fluids between blood vessels and tissues
    • Regulates Blood pressure by preventing tissues swelling
    • Fluid passes before returningto blood
    • fluid coming in is not equal to what goes out
  59. Systemic infection
    • Lymph system at risk for picking up bacteria
    • Bacteria filtered out through lymph nodes(made up of white blood cells)
  60. Respitory System
    To provide oxygen, dispose of carbon dioxide and regulate the ph of blood (bicarbonate)
  61. Upper Respitory
    Consist of the nose that filters, warms and moistens air.
  62. Lower Respitory
    • Consists in order:
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi(supplies each lung)
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli(exchanges O2/Co2)
    • Lungs
  63. Respitory muscles
    • Diaphragm which sits below the lungs
    • Ribs move during breathing
  64. Breathing
    • Controlled by ribs moving external respiration
    • Gas transports blood cells during internal respiration
  65. External Respiratory
    Lungs and blood
  66. Internal Respiratory
    Tissue and blood
  67. Inhalation
    • Diaphragm contracts
    • Chest/lungs get bigger, pressure in lungs decrease
    • Oxygen comes in
  68. Exhalation
    • Diaphragm relaxes
    • chest/lungs smaller
    • pressure decreases forcing air out
    • coronary lung collapses
  69. Coronary lung collapses
    vacuum damaged
  70. Alveoli
    • Lungs are made mostly of these
    • Grapelike structures of thin sacs surrounded by blood vessels
    • Surfactant is a soapy (fat) molecule that lines it and is necessary for easy breathing and where gas exchange mostly occures across the membrane
  71. Automatic breathing
    happens 12 - 15 breathes
  72. Transportation of gases(o2/co2)
    • Blood picks up oxygen when passing through lungs
    • All oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin
    • o2 delivered to cells
    • cells use it to convert glucose to ATP (energy)and build sugars and fats
    • By product is o2
    • hemoglobin transports Co2
    • Dissolved into plasma and converted to bicarbonate to balance blood ph
  73. Involuntary breathing
    • CO2 directed
    • levels direct breathing rate
    • too much Co2 causes faster breathing
  74. Voluntary Breathing
    • possible to do (making self hyperventilate)
    • able to talk, eat, swim
    • diaphragm is a skeletal muscle easy to control
  75. Tidal volume
    volume of air going in / out with normal breath
  76. Residual volume
    volume of air left in lungs after most forceful exhalation(what cannot be exhaled)
  77. Vital capacity
    Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled
  78. Total lung capacity
    VC + RV
  79. Respitory disorders from class can interfere with vital capacity (vc) and lung capacity (lc)
    asthma, bronchitis, colds and flu, pneumonia, tb, smoking related like emphysema and lung cancer
  80. Asthma
    • allergies
    • constricts bronchioles(the cartilage)
  81. Bronchitis
    airway inflammation
  82. Colds and flu
    mucus in airways
  83. Pneumonia
    • fluid accumulates in alveoli reducing gas exchange
    • cough, chest pain, fever, difficulty breathing
  84. TB
    • infectious
    • spread by coughing sneezing spitting
    • chronic coughing, bloody mucous, fever, 1 in 3 in world are infected, 1/3 dies from infection
  85. Emphysema
    • alveoli break down and lose elasticity
    • breathing is difficult and not enough gas exchange
    • some people need gas respirator to help breath
  86. Lung Cancer
    • chronic inflammation
    • cells change
  87. Nicotine
    Is vasoconstrictor stimulant
  88. The skeletal system
    • made of bone and joints
    • connects to muscle
    • protects inner organs
  89. Funtions of bone
    • supports tissues by holding us upright
    • attachment for muscles
    • shields internal organs
    • stores calcium and phosphorous which is release when needed
    • stores fat in yellow bone marrow
  90. Calcium
    • Hardens bone tissue
    • too much can cause bones to break
  91. Yellow bone marrow
    stores fat
  92. Red Bone Marrow
    Produces red blood cells
  93. Bone structure
    • connective tissue
    • osteons (cells in a matrix)
    • osteocytes
  94. Osteoblasts
    • Immature bone cells assist with broken bones
    • part of bone remodeling to rebuild depositions
  95. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  96. Osteoclasts
    • not a cell but protein
    • break bones down through phagocytosis to release calcium
  97. Bone remodeling
    • Break down and build up of bones to build stronger bones
    • occurs throughout life even after growth has stopped
    • osteocytes break down
    • osteoblasts rebuild
  98. osteoporosis
    • progressive loss of bone density because breakdown exceeds deposition
    • risk factors include; poor nutrition, chronic low blood, low calcium, low estrogen at menopause, low physical activity and smoking
  99. Joints
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • where bones meet
  100. Fibrous joint
    connected by dense tissue collagen
  101. Sutures
    • Connecting bones of kulls immoveable
    • connections between long bones lower are lower leg and slightly moveable
  102. Cartilaginous joint
    • connected entirely by cartilage
    • intervetebral discs of spine
  103. Structure of knee joint
    • synovial joints (where bones meet) are most common
    • freely moveable
    • surfaces covered with cartilage
    • reinforced with ligaments supports joint
    • directs movement of bone
  104. arthritis
    • joint inflammation
    • cartilage wears away
    • bones rub
  105. rheumatoid arthritis
    • fluid in joint and replace by fibrous tissue
    • autoimmune disease
    • affects children too
  106. cells in a matric
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
  107. The muscular system
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
    • assists with voluntary movement, breathing, shivering to keep warm
  108. Exitable (muscle)
    responds to stimuli
  109. Contractile (muscle)
    can shorten to move bones
  110. extensible (muscle)
    can stretch to move bones
  111. Elastic (muscle)
    can return to original shape(stretch and return)
  112. How many types of muscles
    approx 700
  113. Tendons
    attaches muscle to bone
  114. Synergistic
    moves in the same direction
  115. Antagonistic
    moves in the opposite direction
  116. Skeletal muscle tissue is ...
    • striated because of repeating arrangements of proteins, actin and myosin
    • made up mostly of protein
  117. Muscles are stacked ....
    sarcomeres end to end
  118. Skeletal muscel contraction
    when actin slides past myosin and closer together
  119. Resting state of muscle contraction
    • tropomyosin another protein wrapped around actin
    • calcium stored in sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR) of muscle cells
    • tropomyosin blocks myosin binding sites on actin
  120. Anabolic steroids
    • drugs that mimic the effect of testosterone
    • contribute to development of muscular characteristics
    • increase protein synthesis in cells causing buildup of cell tissue especially in muscle (enlarged muscles)
    • membrane permeable so hormone penetrates membrane of target cell
    • binds to normal hormone receptor cell
    • hormone recepter complex diffuses into the nucleus and binds to DNA
    • alters gene expression
    • negative side effects are negative feedback causing under production of normal testosterone because steroid is suppressing it and other developments occure in other hormones
  121. Activation
    • action potential
    • ca2(calcium) moves to cytoplasm (released from SR)
    • binds to troponin
    • tropomyosin (yellow rope in diagram) moves off myosin binding sites on actin
  122. Working muscle can require
    600 trillion ATP molecules per second
  123. ATP
    muscles store this