Respiration, Replication, Reproduction

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Respiration, Replication, Reproduction
2011-04-20 22:18:52

Cell Respiration, Replication, Reproduction
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  1. catabolic v. anabolic
    • catabolic = break down
    • anabolic = build up
  2. saturated v. unsaturated
    • saturated = single bonds
    • unsaturated = double bonds
  3. which is more fluid membrane, saturated or unsaturated?
  4. glycolipids are found where?
    membranes and myelinated cells (nervous sys.)
  5. steroids (structure)
    4 ring structure
  6. examples of categories of steroids
    hormones, vitamin D, cholesterol
  7. how are fats trasnported through the blood?
  8. structure of amino acid
    H2N - CHR - COOH
  9. 4 structures of protein
    • 1 - amino acids (peptide bonds)
    • 2 - folding (H bonds)
    • 3 - 3D shape (covalent disulfide bonds)
    • 4 - many protiens
  10. a-helix and b-sheet
    • a-helix: twist
    • b-sheet: lie alongside each other
  11. denaturization disrupts what structure?
    2o, 3o, and 4o
  12. denaturing agents
    acrylamide, urea, hight temp.
  13. do nucleic acids have H bonds and tertiary and quaternary structures?
  14. how do plants store glucose? animals?
    plants = cellulose and starch

    animals = glycogen
  15. animals can digest what forms of stored glucose?
    starch and glycogen

    not cellulose!
  16. In glycolysis, is glucose oxidized or reduced?

    Glucose + O2 > H2O + CO2
  17. 3 components of nucleotides
    • 1. 5C sugar
    • 2. A,T,C,G,U (nitrogenous base)
    • 3. Phosphate group
  18. how are nucleotides joined?
    phosphodiester bonds
  19. written in what direction?
    5' > 3'
  20. are minerals organic or inorganic?
  21. what do minerals do?
    assist in transport in/out of cells

    act as cofactors
  22. Km for enzyme reaction rate represents
    [S] at 1/2Vmax
  23. cofactors proteins or nonproteins?
  24. competitive inhibition affects on Vmax and K
    increase in Km but not Vmax
  25. noncompetitive inhibition affects on Km and Vmax
    Vmax is lowered

    Km is unchanged (substrate can still bind to another enzyme)
  26. competitive and noncompetitive inhibition - are they temporary or permanent?
    competitive = temporary

    noncompetitive = permanent
  27. How can noncompetitive inhibitors be eliminated?
    through metabolism and excretion
  28. Overall aerobic metabolism (what's going on?)
    1. glucose is oxidized - NAD+ is reduced

    2. energy in these e- is used to pump H+ out - creating a proton gradient

    3. proton gradient drives ATP production
  29. what is so special about NAD+ that it can oxidize glucose?
    high-energy e- carrier
  30. How much ATP is produced by 1 NADH and 1 FADH2 molecule?
    1 NADH = 2.5 ATP

    1 FADH2 = 1.5 ATP
  31. where does glycolysis occur?
  32. how much ATP and NADH produced in glycolysis?
    2 ATP

    2 NADH
  33. how much ATP is produced in glycolysis for prokaryotes?
    5 ATP
  34. does glycolysis req. O2?
  35. is glycolysis reversible?

    exception: liver makes glucose from glycogen
  36. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex
    decarboxylates pyruvate

    forms acetyl group + co-enzyme A (acetyl-coA)
  37. How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced by Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
    0 ATP

    2 NADH
  38. where does Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complex occur?
    mitochondrial intermembrane space
  39. Products of Krebs Cycle
    15 ATP

    6 NADH

    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 GTP
  40. where does Krebs cycle occur
    mitochondrial matrix
  41. ETC also known as...
    oxidative phosphorylation
  42. ultimate acceptor of e- in ETC
  43. How many ATPs produced per NADH molecule?
    2-3 ATP
  44. pH relativity in the matrix during ETC
    innermembrane spaces has a lower pH than the matrix
  45. fermentation uses what as final e- acceptor in ETC?
  46. what happens to NADH in fermentation
    recycled back to NAD+
  47. products of fermentation
    yeast and microorganisms = ethanol

    muscle cells = lactic acid
  48. net ATP production for aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
    aerobic = 30 ATP

    anaerobic = 2 ATP
  49. How many copies of each gene do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have?
    prokaryotes = 1 copy

    eikaryotes = several copies
  50. human genome
    26,000-38,000 genes
  51. purines and pyridines
    purines = A and G

    pyridines = C, U, T

    "cut a pyramid"
  52. number of H bonds between A, T, C, G
    • A-T = 2 H bonds
    • C-G = 3 H bonds
  53. What bonds two nucleic acids together, and where?
    phosphodiester bonds between 3C and 5C of sugar
  54. DNA sequence (what is the chain?)
    Pgroup + 5C sugar + N base
  55. replication begins where?
    middle of chromosome
  56. semiconservative
  57. what direction is replication?
  58. what happens first in replication?
    DNA helicase unwinds double helix
  59. after unwinding.... DNA polymerase
    builds new DNA strands
  60. RNA primer
    initiates the strand, so DNA polymerase can add nucleotides, creating the complementary strand
  61. DNA polymerase reads and synthesizes in what direction?
    reads 3' - 5'

    synthesizes 5' - 3'
  62. How does new nucleotide being added remove P-P?
  63. What drives the replication, energetically?
    energy released in hydrolysis of P-P
  64. Why lagging strand?
    since DNA polymerase can read only in 1direction, and there are two strands, so 1 strand is looped around (flipped)
  65. so why is lagoons strand lagging?
    flipped reading causes interruption

    restarts with a new primer
  66. What are lagging interruptions called?
    Okazaki fragments
  67. How are Okazaki fragments brought together?
    DNA ligase
  68. Is DNA replication proofread?
    Yes, thats why its accurate
  69. Replication Summary
    • 1. Helicase unzips double helix
    • 2. RNA Polymerase builds a primer
    • 3. DNA Polymerase assembles leading&lagging strand
    • 4. Primers are removed
    • 5. Okazaki fragments joined by DNA ligase
  70. RNA versus DNA nitrogenous bases: U and T
    DNA binds A to T

    RNA binds A to U
  71. How are DNA and RNA produced?
    DNA produced by replication

    RNA produced by transcription
  72. Where are DNA and RNA found?
    DNA: nucleus and mitochondrial matrix

    RNA: cytosol
  73. Transcription (summary)
    • 1. initiation
    • 2. RNA polymerase unzips DNA helix
    • 3. Elongation
    • 4. Termination
  74. What is a promoter?
    sequence of DNA that designates start of transcription
  75. Elongation: RNA polymerase transcribes one or both strands of DNA?
  76. in what direction does RNA polymerase move?
    moves along 3' to 5'

    builds 5' to 3'
  77. transcription proofreading
  78. termination
    terminating sequence to dissociate RNA polymerase
  79. What are activators and repressors?
    bind to DNA close to promoter -

    activate or repress activity of RNA polymerase
  80. post-transcription processing: eukaryotes or prokaryotes?
  81. What is involved in post-transcriptional processing
    primary transcript is modified

    • 5' end is capped
    • 3' end adds poly-A tail

    primary transcript is cleaved
  82. How is primary transcript modified?
    • addition of nucleotides
    • deletion of nucleotides
    • modification of nitrogenous bases
  83. How is primary transcript cleaved?
    sNRPs loop out introns, uniting exons
  84. what happens to introns and exons
    introns remain in the nucleus

    eons join together to make mRNA - which will be translated
  85. Are there more codons or amino acids?

    43 = 64 possibilities; but only 20 amino acids
  86. Can more than one sequence code for the same amino acid?
  87. What are the stop and start codons?
    start = AUG

    stop = UAA, UGA, UAG
  88. Roles of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
    mRNA = carries genetic code from nucleus to cytosol

    tRNA = contains antidocodon

    rRNA = makes up ribosome
  89. ribosome: prokaryotic v. eukaryotic
    prokaryotes = 30S + 50S = 70S

    eukaryotes = 40S + 60S = 80S
  90. Which side attaches to small ribosomal unit
  91. tRNA anticodon that initiates translation
    CAU (complementary to codon)
  92. Translation initiation:
    large subunit joins joins after CAU sparks A
  93. translation: elongation
    2nd tRNA attaches to A site with anticodon to first nucleotide

    continues on...
  94. translation: termination
    stop codon is reached along mRNA
  95. when stop codon reaches A site, how does it terminate the translational process?
    release factor binds to A site

    adds water to end of polypeptide chain - releases new protein
  96. post-translational process
    sugars, lipids, P groups can be added to protein
  97. translation and ER
    translation can occur free in cytosol

    or in ribosomes that attach to ER
  98. fate of proteins translated in ribosomes on rough ER
    secreted from cell (via golgi)

    remain partially attached to the membrane
  99. point mutation
    change in a single base pair of nucleotides
  100. examples of point mutation
    missense and nonsense mutation
  101. missense mutation
    change in codon that codes for a different amino acid than original
  102. nonsense mutation
    mutates to a stop codon
  103. point mutation affect on protein
    missense: alters protein function

    nonsense: loss of protein function
  104. insertion or deletion mutation examples
    frameshift: adding/deleting not in multiples of 3

    nonframeshift: add/delete in multiple of 3
  105. mutation in somatic or germ cells are passed on to offspring
  106. What is a chromosome?
    2 sister chromatids attached at a centromere
  107. outline of chromosome
    DNA - cental - histones - chromatin -(supercoil)- chromosome
  108. crossing over takes place in
    prophase I
  109. haploid and diploid

    what does n represent?
    haploid = n, diploid = 2n

    n = # of chromosomes
  110. how many chromatids in n chromosomes?
    2n chromatids
  111. What are homologues?
    chromosome partners that code for the same traits

    but they're different genes
  112. Are diploid and haploids homologous pairs?
    diploid, but not haploid
  113. What is the structural unit of a chromosome?
  114. electrophoresis: charge of anode and cathode
    in what direction does nuclide move?
    anode = (+) cathode = (-)

    (-) from P group attracted to (+) anode
  115. cell life cycle
    • G0
    • G1
    • S
    • G2

    • M
  116. In what phase is liver and intestines?
    liver divides once/year - G0 phase

    intestine divides twice/day
  117. mitosis
    division without genetic change
  118. Prophase
    condensation of chromatin into chromosomes
  119. Metaphase
    chromosomes align along equator of the cell
  120. Anaphase
    sister chromatids split and attach to centromoeres
  121. Telophase
    nuclear membrane forms
  122. product of mitosis
    2 identical daughter cells
  123. centrosome
    microtubule organizing center,

    at each side only in eukaryotes
  124. centromere
    spot where chromosomes are attached

    attaches to spindle via kinetochore
  125. meiosis produces
    2 haploid gametes

    (involves 2 divisions)
  126. what are the only cells that undergo meiosis?

    in humans?
    germ cells

    only speratogonium and oogonium
  127. Prophase I
    homologous chromosomes line up

    (may cross over)
  128. site of crossing over
  129. Metaphase I
    homologues align along metaphase plate
  130. Anaphase I
    separate homologues from their partners
  131. Telophase I
    nuclear membrane and cytokinesis
  132. so, what is meiosis II?
    same as meiosis I but doubled
  133. products of meiosis
    haploid gametes with 23 chromosomes
  134. What is nondisjunction?
    centromere doesn't split in anaphase
  135. Nondisjunction in anaphase I
    once cell = 2 extra chromatids

    other cell = missing 2 chromatids
  136. Nondisjunction in anaphase II?
    one cell has 1 extra chromatid

    *will behave normally in meiosis
  137. Where do primary spermatogonium/oogonium come from?
    product from S phase in Interphase
  138. When does female (oogonium) life cycle begin?
    starts at birth

    stuck in Prophase I until puberty
  139. just before ovulation, primary oocyte does what?
    undergoes mitotic division -

    becomes 2o oocyte
  140. when is the 2o oocyte released?
    upon ovulation
  141. what does penetration of 2o oocyte by sperm do?
    stimulates anaphase II
  142. summary of oogonium reproduction
    • 1. stuck in prophase I
    • 2. puberty = stimulates life cycle
    • 3. meitotic division just before ovulation (2o)
    • 4.penetration of 2o oocyte by sperm stimulates anaphase II
  143. When is primary speratocyte produced? Is it haploid or diploid, and how many chromosomes does it have?
    just after DNA replication

    diploid, 46 chromosomes
  144. What does DNA ligase do?
    unites interrupted DNA fragments
  145. Is prokaryotic DNA single or double stranded?
    double stranded

  146. In what phase does the nuclear membrane disintegrate?

    when chromosomes condense