Chapter 15 BB

Card Set Information

Author:
vet1999
ID:
79852
Filename:
Chapter 15 BB
Updated:
2011-04-15 16:56:31
Tags:
ACLAM blue book chapter pigs swine
Folders:

Description:
Questions on Chapter 15 Blue Book, pigs
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user vet1999 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Que. What Order, Family and Genus/species do swine belong to?
    • Ans. Order Artiodactyla, Family Suidae, Genus/species: Sus scrofa domestica
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 615.
  2. Que. What is a differential diagnosis for cysticercosis, with larvae found in the peritoneal cavity, liver or other organs ?
    • Ans. Fasciola hepatica is DDX if migration tracts found in liver.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 615.
  3. Que. What causes hydatidosis / hydatid cyst disease? What are clinical signs, treatment? What is the pathogenesis?
    • Ans. The larval intermediate of Echinococcus granulosus (a tapeworm from the SI of canids); usually asymptomatic (not treated); ova are ingested by humans, pigs or herbivores, eggs hatch in GI tract, oncospheres pentrate mucosa, enter blood, to various organs; cystic structures develop and rupture, forming new cystic structures.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 615.
  4. Que. T/F. SPF swine are completely free of diseases that may interfere with research.
    • Ans. False
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  5. Que. The best breeds of swine for projects longer than 3 weeks are of what type?
    • Ans. Miniature swine
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  6. Que. Swine should be purchased from vendor herds that are validated _______-free and qualified ______-negative by the USDA.
    • Ans. 1.Brucellosis; 2. Pseudorabies
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  7. Que. What is the best housing for swine (pens or cages)?
    • Ans. Pens
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  8. Que. Is smooth flooring, such as seamless epoxy, a good type of flooring for swine?
    • Ans. No, It should be avoided.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  9. Que. A neurologic syndrome in dehydrated swine is a result of ________.
    • Ans. �salt poisoning�
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0616
  10. Que: What is a social complication that exist with group housing swine and how can it be prevented?
    • Ans: Dominance fighting is a problem unless the swine are socialized.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  11. Que: Name some ways to restrain swine and which is the preferred method.
    • Ans: 1. Panepinto sling (preferred)
    • 2. snout tying (agricultural method)
    • 3. manual restraint (small swine)
    • 4. restaint against side of cage with movable handheld panels.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  12. Que: Where can intramuscular injections be administered in the swine?
    • Ans: In the neck and the hindlimb
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  13. Que: Name the sites of venous access in the swine.
    • Ans: auricular, cephalic external and internal jugular, precava, lateral saphenous, cranial abdominal and femoral.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  14. Que: What is complicated about venous access sites in the swine?
    • Ans: Most of the peripheral vessels are deep and not visible.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  15. Que: Swine have been used mainly for what purpose in research?
    • Ans: Cardiovascular research
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  16. Que: What cardiovascular diseases of interest are swine used for?
    • Ans: artherosclerosis, coronary arterial stenosis and infarction, congenital heart disease, volume- and pressure- overload heart failure, electrophysiology, and testing of grafts, stents, and interventional devices.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  17. Que: How is atherosclerosis induced in swine?
    • Ans: 1. feeding cholesterol and fat-enhanced diets.
    • 2. Damaging the endothelium with a balloon catheter.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 617
  18. Que. High membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) and von Willebrand�s disease are ______ models that are available in swine.
    • Ans. genetic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  19. Que. Nutritional and gastrointestinal models in swine are studied because of the physiology of their digestion, which is similar to that of ________ and their ______ diet.
    • Ans. Humans, omnivorous
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  20. Que. In the area of renal research, swine are used in studies of renal hypertension, ----_______ reflux, ________ reflux and urinary obstruction.
    • Ans. Vesicoureteral, intrarenal
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  21. Que. Swine are the model of choice for most of the laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures because of their _____ and _______.
    • Ans. Size, anatomy
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  22. Que. Transplantation research has been performed on ______, ________, kidney and viscera. The size of the organs, the surgical anatomy and response to ____________make them idea for many of these studies.
    • Ans. Lung, liver, immunosuppressive
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  23. Que. Swine are being developed as models and donors for xenotransplantation, which has included the development of ________ strains
    • Ans. transgenic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  24. Que. The anatomic and physiological characteristics of the skin have made swine a definitive ______ surgical model. Swine have also been developed as models in a wide variety of other surgical procedures including ______ surgery, and procedures in the musculoskeletal, central nervous, _______, urogenital, and cardiopulmonary systems.
    • Ans. Genetic, fetal, gastrointestinal
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  25. Que. Many biological models have been developed in swine including the areas of systemic and dermal toxicology, ______ and _______ shock, immunology, diabetes, malignant ________, malignant ______ and gastric ulceration.
    • Ans. Humans, omnivorous, septic, hemorrhagic, melanoma, hyperthermia
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  26. Que. The cardiovascular system is similar to that of humans, especially the _______ anatomy.
    • Ans. coronary
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  27. Que. The blood supply from the coronary artery in the swine is _____ side dominant and does not have preexisting collateral circulation. This makes the coronary blood flow situation similar to ______ % of the human population.
    • Ans. Right, 90
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  28. Que. The electrophysiologic system in swine is more ________ than ______ and there are prominent Purkinje fibers. The _____ azygous vein drains the intercostal vessels into the coronary sinus unlike in most other species. This vessel may be ligated or blocked with a ballon catheter to provide total coronary venous drainage into the ______ sinus. The aorta has a true ______ like that of humans.
    • Ans. Neurogenic, myogenic, left, coronary, vaso vasorum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  29. Que. The stomach of the swine has a muscular outpouching, ______ near the pylorus. The bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the _______ separately in the proximal portion. The anatomic divisions between the duodenum, ileum and jejunum are _______. The mesenteric branches form their vascular arcades in the _______ rather than the in the mesentery as in other species.
    • Ans. Torus plyloricus, duodenum, indistinct, subserosa
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 618
  30. Que. In swine the physiology of _______ and intestinal transport are very similar to humans?
    Ans. Digestion
  31. Que. In swine, the lymph nodes are ________ with the germinal centers being located in the internal portion of the mode.
    • Ans. Inverted
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p619
  32. Que. The pig penis is fibromuscular with a corkscrew-shaped tip located in a preputial diverticulum near the umbilicus. As such, the penis also has a _______ flexure.
    • Ans. Sigmoid
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 620
  33. Que. The male accessory glands of pigs include, __________, ___________, ___________, and _____________?
    • Ans. Ductus deferens, prostate, vescicular gland, bulbourethral gland
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 620
  34. Que. The pig pancreas is __________ and surrounds and encompasses the ____________ mesenteric vein.
    • Ans. Bilobed, superior
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 620
  35. Que. One nutritional requirement that is particularly important for newborn pigs is _______?
    • Ans. Iron
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 620
  36. Que. Swine, unlike ruminants, do not require elemental ________ in their diets provided the diets are adequate with amino acids containing this element.
    • Ans. Sulfur
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 620
  37. Que. Swine reach sexual maturity at _____ months of age.
    • Ans. 3-7
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 621
  38. Que. Litter size varies among breeds, with domestic swine usually having an average of ____ pigs per litter.
    • Ans. 8-12
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 621
  39. Que. The average estrous cycle in swine is ____ days.
    • Ans. 21
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 621
  40. Que. _____ _____ assays are more accurate for determining pregnancy status than progesterone assays.
    • Ans. Estrone sulfate
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 621
  41. Que. The gestation period of miniature pigs and commercial pigs is typically ________ days.
    • Ans. 114 -115 days
    • Ref. LAM- 2nd ed. Ch.15, p. 622
  42. Que. __________ is the most reliable sign of farrowing in the pig.
    • Ans. Respiratory rate
    • Ref. LAM � 2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 622
  43. Que. Environmental temperature for pig neonates should be _______ with a supplemental heat source in the stall that results in a temperature of approximately ______ at pig level.
    • Ans. 85�- 95�, 90�
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 622
  44. Que. The sow�s comfort level is approximately _________ which is the reason for having a supplemental heat source just for the neonates.
    • Ans. 68�-70� F
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 622
  45. Que. The most important factors that contribute to neonatal survival are __________.
    • Ans. the ability of the piglets to receive colostrums within the first 12 hr of birth, adequate nutrition, and appropriate environmental conditions.
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 622
  46. Que. What procedures should be include in Day 1 care of piglets?
    • Ans. disinfection of the navel, clipping of the canine or �needle� teeth, injection of an iron supplement, identification of individual animals, weighing, and clinical exam
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  47. Que. What is the recommend environmental temperature for piglets up to 3-4 weeks of age?
    • Ans. 85-95 degrees F
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  48. Que. What is the recommend environmental temperature for piglets up to 4-8 weeks of age?
    • Ans. 75-80 degrees F
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  49. Que. What age are piglets usually weaned?
    • Ans. 3-5 weeks
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  50. Que. Do pigs have a highly developed sense of smell?
    • Ans. yes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  51. Que. Do pigs have highly developed eyesight?
    • Ans. no; they have poor eyesight
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  52. Que. What types of toys help provide cage enrichment for pigs?
    • Ans. balls, chains, hoses
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  53. Que. Pigs are considered for what type of potential transplantation?
    • Ans. xenotransplantation
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p623
  54. Que. Which mammals have inverted lymph nodes?
    • Ans. Swine, warthog, elephant, rhino, hippo, and dolphin
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 624
  55. Que. How are swine Peyer�s patches similar to ruminants?
    • Ans. 2 types present in the small bowel (jejunal has T and B cells, ilieal- B cells almost exclusively)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 624
  56. Que. Bone marrow of ____ is more similar to that of humans than that of rodents in toxicity response to lethal irradiation, allowing studies that have demonstrated the benefit of T-cell depletion of donor tissues in preventing graft-versus-host disease.
    • Ans. swine
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 625
  57. Que. Normative data for the swine immune system derived from animals of conventional health status (i.e., farm environments) differ significantly from those housed under ________, ______ or ______ conditions.
    • Ans. specific-pathogen free, gnotobiotic, axenic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 625
  58. Que. There is no testable material on page 626
    • Ans.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P626
  59. Que. In swine, there is no transplacental transfer of maternal immunity; thus, neonates are dependent on ______________.
    • Ans. colostrum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  60. Que. In swine, access to Ig__ - rich colostrum within the first _____ hours postpartum is most critical for 3-week survival rate and weight gain.
    • Ans. IgG, six
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  61. Que. In swine, intestinal closure for absorption of colostrum is complete by _____ to _____ hours of age.
    • Ans. 24 to 48
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  62. Que. In contrast to most other species, the pig lacks the gene for Ig___, which is a precursor immunoglobulin in the differentiation pathway to IgM.
    • Ans. IgD
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  63. Que. Located on chromosome 7, _______________ is the equivalent of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
    • Ans. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  64. Que. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class ____ genes are universal in tissue expression and function to restrict T-cell activation, particularly antiviral immune responses, and are pivotal for inducing tolerance for �self�.
    • Ans. SLA class I
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  65. Que. In comparing the complement system in the pig to that in the human, one difference is that elimination of antigen-antibody immune complexes occurs through the __________ in the pig, in contrast to the target organs of liver and spleen in humans.
    • Ans. lung
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 627
  66. Que. Name some of the advantages swine have in order to be considered as prime candidates of systematic production of suitable organs for xenotransplantation.
    • Ans. Miniature swine are readily available and have body weight, organ size, and physiology similar to humans. Their transplant potential is supported by emerging transgenic technology to minimize rejection. Disease resistance of swine organs has also been promoted as a strategy to circumvent rejection resulting from infectious agents specific to the human, such as Hep B virus.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  67. Que. Name the leading contribution of Dr. David Sachs (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston) to the use of swine in xenotransplantation.
    • Ans. He developed three lines of miniature swine homozygous for a different set of SLA alleles.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  68. Que. Three lines of miniature swine homozygous for a different set of SLA alleles have been developed. What are the designations (names) of these SLA alleles?
    • Ans. SLAaa, SLAcc, and SLAdd
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  69. Que. Why are these SLA lines of miniature swine useful genetic models for studying xenotransplant rejection?
    • Ans. The lines are heterozygous at minor histocompatibility and other loci.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  70. Que. Matching SLA skin grafts typically survive for _______ to ______ days, but vascular grafts and liver transplants survive much longer, some ___________.
    • Ans. 7 to 10 days; indefinitely
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  71. Que. �Gal (?1-3)�, �Gal (?1-4)�, and �GlcNAc-R� are found on donor tissue endothelium. What do they represent?
    • Ans. Carbohydrate antigens. Following xenotransplantation, these may be targeted by natural �xenoantibodies� in the recipient, resulting in complement activation and subsequent vascular injury, sometimes leading to DIC.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  72. Que. What model of xenotransplantation holds the promise of future technology transfer to enable swine-to-human donation?
    • Ans. Swine-to-baboon
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  73. Que. What method has been tried to eliminate natural xenoantibodies from the circulation of baboons, thereby eliminating subsequent rejection of a xenotransplant from pigs?
    • Ans. ?-Gal immunoaffinity columns or extracorporeal perfusion through the pig�s liver. Depletion is temporary (days to weeks).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  74. Que. Nonspecific depletion of the majority of recipient immunoglobulins of all isotypes by column immunaphoresis significantly improved/greatly reduced graft survival of pig hearts in baboons.
    • Ans. Significantly improved
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  75. Que. Acute rejection of xenografts may be instigated by antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. What other delayed rejection process will the body use?
    • Ans. Cell-mediated responses; usually develops over 3-4 days, involving the endothelial cells of the graft (as seen in the acute rejection response).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 628
  76. Que. There have been several attempts to promote immunologic tolerance for xenotransplation by modifying a characteristic of the recipient (bone marrow ablation, immunosuppressive drug regimens, etc). An attractive approach that has shown early promise is the induction of donor-specific tolerance using bone marrow transplantation to create __________.
    Ans. chimeras
  77. Que. Why is the experiment involving gene therapy to express swine SLA class II antigens on baboon autologous bone marrow cells important?
    • Ans. because it demonstrated that transfer and expression of xenogeneic class II transgenes can be achieved in baboons, and this therapy may prevent late T cell-dependent responses to porcine xenografts, which include induced non-? Ga1 IgG anti-body responses.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  78. Que. What science offers the most promising approach to prevent the rejection of xenotransplants?
    • Ans. transgenic science
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  79. Que. What is the major issue that needs to be considered in xenotransplant research?
    • Ans. minimizing the risk of acquired zoonoses particularly in recipients already immunosuppressed by illness and chemotherapy.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  80. Que. In immunosuppressed patients, in addition to risks associated with normal flora, environmental contaminants, and true pathogens. What are the concerns with xenotransplantation?
    • Ans. unknown risks of viral latency, viral recombination and endogenous retroviruses, which in the pig are known to infect human cells in vitro.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  81. Que. When implementing treatment for infectious problems in swine
    used in research, what factors should be cautiously considered?
    • Ans. treatment is best reserved for those problems that are expected to resolve quickly with minimal impact in the research use or health status of the research herd as a whole.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  82. Que. What is the advantage of using the pig as a model for xenotransplantation?
    • Ans. the pig can be produce under gnotobiotic conditions
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 629.
  83. Que. There are ________ serotypes of Salmonella, each referred to as a separate species.
    • Ans. 2400
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  84. Que. All members of the genus Salmonella are (motile/nonmotile), non-spore forming, facultative (aerobic/anaerobic) (gram positive/gram negative) bacilli possessing peritrichous flagellae.
    • Ans. Motile; anaerobic; gram negative
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  85. Que. Name the 3 serotypes of Salmonella that are typically etiologic agents of disease in swine.
    • Ans. Salmonella choleraesuis var. kunzendorf; Salmonella typhimurium; Salmonella typhisuis;
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  86. Que. Match the following Salmonella agents with the manifestation of disease that it causes:
    • Ans. Salmonella choleraesuis.- septicemia and/or pneumonia
    • Salmonella typhisuis.- chronic wasting, caseous lymphadenitis
    • Salmonella typhimurium -. enterocolitis
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  87. Que. Characteristic signs of Salmonella septicemia include all of the following Ans. cough and dyspnea
    • A. watery, yellow diarrhea
    • B. cyanosis of the ears and ventral abdomen
    • C. pyrexia
    • D. jaundice
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  88. Que. The respiratory form of Salmonella most commonly affects swine of what age group?
    • Ans. 3 weeks to 5 months
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  89. Que. List 2 bacterial, 2 viral and 2 parasitic differentials for Salmonellosis.
    • Ans. Bacterial = colibacillosis, porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) (Lawsonia intracelllularis), and swine dysentery (Serpulina hyodysenteriae; viral = transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and rotaviral enteritis; parasitic = Trichuris suis and coccidiosis (Isospora suis)
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  90. Que. How is Salmonella transmitted?
    • Ans. Both vertical and horizontal (fecal-oral or nasal secretions); survivors become carriers that shed bacteria in the feces for at least 3 months
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  91. Que. List 5 of the seven forms of stress which usually precede clinical disease.
    • Ans. 1) shipping; 2) food deprivation; 3) research protocols; 4) temperature fluctuations; 5) mixing pigs from different sources; 6) overcrowding (Note: Stress increases shedding by inapparent carriers
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  92. Que. Which of the Salmonella species is not host-specific?
    • Ans. Salmonella typhimurium
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  93. Que. List 4 gross lesions associated with S. cholerasuis.
    • Ans. Severe pleuropneumonia; cyanosis of ears, feet, tail and abdomen; splenomegaly and hepatomegaly; edematous enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes; erosion of the fundic mucosa in the stomach; focal to diffuse necrotic typhlocolitis
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  94. Que. In what part of the small intestine does Salmonella choleraesuis invade?
    • Ans. ileum
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  95. Que. What factor(s) is/are found to be responsible for microthrombosis and ischemia of vessels in the lamina propria resulting in necrosis of enterocytes?
    • Ans. Shiga-like and cholera-like endotoxins
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  96. Que. Diarrhea is the (malabsorptive/secretory) type with extensive fluid loss from the necrotic lesions.
    • Ans. malabsorptive
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  97. Que. Which of the following common surface disinfectants is not listed as efficacious against Salmonella?
    • Ans. C. quaternary ammonium compounds
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  98. Que. What assay has been developed that will identify salmonellae in feces and intestinal mucosa scrapings, as well as in pure cultures?
    • Ans. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  99. Que. Name the avirulent live vaccine that has been shown to have the protective effect of reduced fecal shedding and mortality in suckling piglets when applied by spraying the teats and udders of nursing sows.
    • Ans. S. choleraesuis (SC-54) culture vaccine
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  100. Que. What type of vaccine is protective against S. choleraesuis and thought to be effective because it stimulates cell-mediated immunity?
    • Ans. Modified live attenuated vaccine
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  101. Que. Name 2 antibiotics used to medicate feed or water for protection against salmonellosis.
    • Ans. carbadox and neomycin
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p630
  102. Que. What antibiotic should be used to treat Salmonellosis?
    • Ans. None, because of its potential for carrier state and zoonosis. If treatment must be initiated, it should be based on sensitivity testing. Recommended potential antiobiotics include ceftiofur, trimethoprim-sulfonamide, gentamicin.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  103. Que. What is the etiological agent for Glasser�s Disease (aka Haemophilus, Porcine Polyserositis, Infectious Polyarthritis?
    • Ans. Haemophilus parasuis-small gram negative pleomorphic coccobaccilli which requires micotinomide adenine dinucleotide (AND or factor V) and exhibits satellitism when grown near Staphlococcus epidermis on blood agar plate. Servoars 2,4,5,12, 13 14 are most common in North America.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  104. Que. What are the clinical signs for Glasser�s Disease?
    • Ans. Affects young pig (3weeks-4month). Depending on degree of herd immunity, can see pyrexia (104�-107�F), anorexia, depression, lameness, neurological signs, dyspnea, an death. May have a markedly increased WBC and decreased PCV. Chronic sequelae include abortion and chronic arthritis.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  105. Que. Where is the first site of colonization seen in piglets?
    • Ans. nasal mucosa.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  106. Que. What is the reservoir for H. parasuis?
    • Ans. It is known to only infect swine and is part of the normal flora.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  107. Que. What antibiotic should be used to treat H. parsuis?
    • Ans. Recommended penicillin parentally (oral dosing is ineffective). Also lists cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, potentiated sulfas, tetracyclines, tylosin.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0631
  108. Que. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-__________ bacillus, which has 26 serovars and causes ____________ in swine.
    • Ans. positive; erysipelas
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  109. Que. What is the characteristic dermatologic clinical sign often seen with the acute form of swine erysipelas?
    • Ans. rhomboid or diamond-shaped urticarial (pink to purple) skin lesions on the ventral abdomen and back
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  110. Que. What animal species is the primary reservoir of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
    • Ans. the domestic pig (approximately 30-50% of conventional swine are carriers)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  111. Que. What is the transmission route of swine erysipelas?
    • Ans. The bacteria are shed in nasal secretions, saliva, and feces. This bacterium typically gains entry into the body through contaminated food and water (oral route) and skin wounds.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  112. Que. In what age range are swine most likely to develop clinical disease with erysipelas?
    • Ans. older than three months and younger than three years of age
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  113. Que. True or False. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae can survive in the environment for long periods. (swine chapter)
    • Ans. True.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  114. Que. What is the treatment of choice for the acute form of swine erysipelas?
    • Ans. penicillin (tetracyclines, tylosin, and lincomycin are also effective)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p632
  115. Que. ___________ has been used historically and can be effective if given early in the course of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.
    • Ans. Hyperimmune serum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0633
  116. Que. Hyperimmune serum provide about ___ weeks of passive immunity
    • Ans. Two
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0633
  117. Que. Streptococcus suis is a gram___________ oval cocci.
    • Ans. Positive
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0633
  118. Que. S. suis most commonly affects swine aged _______ weeks..
    • Ans. 5-16
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0633
  119. Que. The most satisfactory method of preventing S. suis is by __________- and _________________.
    • Ans. Rederivation by hysterectomy or hysterotomy
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0633
  120. Que. What subfamily of the Herpesviridae family does virus pseudorabies belong in?
    • Ans. Alpha-Herpies virus.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p634.
  121. Que. What is the eponym for pseudorabies?
    • Ans. Aujeszky's disease.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p634.
  122. Que. What is the main differential diagnosis for pseudorabies?
    • Ans. Swine Influenza.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p634.
  123. Que. What species of nonhuman primates can be infected with pseudorabies?
    • Ans. Macaques and marmosets.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p634.
  124. Que. What would be the organs of choice for pseudorabies isolation?
    • Ans. Brain, lung, spleen.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p634.
  125. Que. What is the general pathogenesis of Pseudorabies virus (tissue trpopism)?
    • Ans. Virus enters nasopharynx and spreads via lymphatics --> viremia; also spreads via neuron branches into CNS, where it can result in latent infection of the trigeminal ganglion.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  126. Que. What is the general significance of pseudorabies infection?
    • Ans. It is a reportable disease and in 1989 a national eradication program was started.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  127. Que. Is there an effective pseudorabies vaccine? Is there a way to tell vaccinated from infected pigs?
    • Ans. A vaccine does exist, but it does not prevent infection or totally eliminate viral shedding. What it does do is protect pigs from clinical signs and mortality, and decrease shedding. There is a gene-deleted vaccine which allows for differentiation of vaccinate versus infected pigs.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  128. Que. What are the three primary agents associated with atrophic rhinitis? Which two agents combined produce the most severe form of the disease? What is usually required to cause permanent nasal distortion and turbinate atrophy?
    • Ans. Pasteurella multocida (toxigenic forms), Bordatella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus parasuis; the combo of P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica; at least two infectious agents required.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  129. Que. What do nonprogressive atrophic rhinitis (NPAR) and progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) refer to?
    • Ans. NPAR - infection with B. bronchiseptica alone; PAR - either P. multocida alone or P. multocida plus B. .
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  130. Que. What is the most characteristic sign of atrophic rhinitis in pigs? What are gross lesions? How is the degree of atrophy commonly scored?
    • Ans. Dorsal and/or lateral deviation of the snout; brachygnathia superior is most common form and is due to slower bone growth in the upper jaw resulting in an upturned appearance. Gross lesions consist of turbinate atrophy (with or without facial deformity. Commonly scored by cutting at level of second premolar and visually scoring.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  131. Que. What is the age at which clinical signs (sneezing, snuffling, etc., NOT snout deformity) occurs with B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida infection?
    • Ans. B. bronchiseptica -- less than 4 weeks of age; P. multocida -- 1 - 3 months of age.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 635.
  132. Que. Atrophic rhinitis occurs in older pigs (3-4 months) with infection with which causative agent, Pasteurella multocida or Bordetella bronchiseptica.
    • Ans. Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0636
  133. Que. What are the oral antibiotics of choice for treatment atrophic rhinitis?
    • Ans. Tilmicosin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0636
  134. Que. What are the most satisfactory methods of preventing atrophic rhinitis?
    • Ans. Development and maintenance of an SPF swine facility using cesarean section, medicated early weaning, and segregated early weaning.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0636
  135. Que: What are the research complications associated with atrophic rhinitis?
    • Ans: 1.Toxin produced by P. multocida will induce liver and kidney lesions as well as damage nasal turbinates.
    • 2. Bordetalla bronchiseptica can induce pneumonic lesion in young piglets
    • 3. Can affect most chronic research studies
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  136. Que: What is the cause of Pasteurellosis in swine?
    • Ans: Pasteurella multocida
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  137. Que: How is the P. multocida organism characterized?
    • Ans: Gram-negative coccobacillus and a facultative anaerobe
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  138. Que: What capsular serotypes have been reported in swine?
    • Ans: A, B, and D
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  139. Que: Which capsular serotype is most common in pneumonic lungs?
    • Ans: Serotype A
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  140. Que: What capsular serotype causes the most severe disease?
    • Ans: Serotype B
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  141. Que: Which serotype has not been reported in natural outbreaks in Europe and the United States?
    • Ans: Serotype B
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  142. Que: What are the predominant signs of the acute form of pasteurellosis?
    • Ans: dyspnea (thumping), cough, anorexia, fever to 107�F (41.7�C).
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  143. Que: Sudden death with pasteurellosis is not typical unless what strain is involved?
    • Ans: serotype B
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  144. Que: Morbidity and mortality in swine with pasteurellosis is best described as:
    • Ans: c. variable
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  145. Que: The chronic form of pasteurellosis is characterized by what clinical signs?
    • Ans: intermittent cough, thumping, and low fever of 103�- 104�F (39.5�- 40�C) or no pyrexia
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  146. Que: The acute form of pasteurellosis is similar to what other disease in swine and how is it different?
    • Ans: It is similar to pleuropneumonia (APP) without the frequency of sudden death
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  147. Que: The chronic form of pasteurellosis is similar to what other disease in swine?
    • Ans: It is similar to mycoplasmal pneumoniae of swine (MPS).
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  148. Que: What are other differentials for pasteurellosis?
    • Ans: Salmonella choleraesuis, Metrastrongyulus elongates, and Ascaris suum.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  149. Que: Where is P. multocida commonly found in swine?
    • Ans: It is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of swine
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  150. Que: Where can P. multocida be cultured from in swine?
    • Ans: nose and tonsils of healthy pigs and SPF herds
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  151. Que: How is pasteurellosis transmitted?
    • Ans: by direct contract and aerosols
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  152. Que: What are the gross necropsy findings of pasteurellosis?
    • Ans: 1. Findings are confines to the cranioventral aspects of the lobes.
    • 2. Red to gray areas of consolidation, frothy exudates in the trachea, suppurative pleuritis and pericarditis, pleural adhesions, and pulmonary abscesses.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  153. Que: What are the histological lesions associated with pasteurellosis?
    • Ans: Severe suppurative bronchopneumonia, pleuritis and abscess
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  154. Que: In the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida where does serotype A and D adhere to in the respiratory epithelium in swine?
    • Ans: Serotype A adheres to nonciliated cells and serotype B adheres to nonciliated cells.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  155. Que: When is Pasteurella multocida result in disease?
    • Ans: when adherence to epithelial cells is facilitated by the presence of other agents.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  156. Que: How does P. multocida result in turbinate atrophy in swine?
    • Ans: P. multocida produces a toxin the results in necrosis of osteoblasts and stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption in the nasal turbinates.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  157. Que: How can pasteurellosis be prevented in swine?
    • Ans: 1. Identify, treat or manage any concurrent pathogens since P. multocida is usually the secondary agent.
    • 2. Pasteurellosis is a complication of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.
    • 3. High quality control of environmental air temperature, humidity, and ammonia levels is critical
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  158. Que: How can pasteurellosis be controlled in swine?
    • Ans: 1. Vaccination and medicated feed (tetracyclines, tylosins) and water may be beneficial
    • 2. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, PRRS, swine influenza, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and parasites should be controlled.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  159. Que: How is pasteurellosis in swine treated?
    • Ans: 1. Animals showing clinical signs should be treated with parenteral antibiotic based on susceptibility testing.
    • 2. Oxytetracycline, ceftiofur, penicillin, florfenicol, enrofloxacine or doxycycline dosed is effective in pneumonia caused by P. multocida and M. hyopneumoniae.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  160. Que: What are the research complications associated with pasteurellosis?
    • Ans: Complications with anesthesia due to bronchopneumonia-associated accumulation of purulent fluid in airways. Cardiovascular and respiratory research studies may be confounded by infections with fibrinous pleuritis and pericarditis.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  161. Que: What is the etiology of Pleuropneumonia (APP)?
    • Ans: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  162. Que: What is the former name of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?
    • Ans: Haemophilus pleuropneumonia or H. parahaemolyticus.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  163. Que: What are the extracellular hemolytic toxins of A. pleuropneumoniae?
    • Ans: ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  164. Que: Do all serotypes secrete Apx toxins?
    • Ans: all serotypes secrete one or more Apx toxins
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  165. Que: How many serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae are there?
    • Ans: 12
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  166. Que: Which serovars of A. pleuropneumoniae are most frequently isolated?
    • Ans: 1, 5, and 7
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  167. Que: How is the organism A. pleuropneumoniae characterized?
    • Ans: gram-negative encapsulated coccobacillary rod which requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD or Factor V) for growth.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  168. Que: How is primary isolation achieved for A. pleuropneumoniae?
    • Ans: Cross-streaking on blood agar plate with a staphylococcus which produces NAD
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  169. Que: What is satellitism or satellite phenomenon?
    • Ans: After cross-streaking A. pleuropneumoniae on a blood agar plate with staphylococcus, the A. pleuropneumonia will grow near the colonies of staphylococcus because they produce NAD.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  170. Que: What other agar media is utilited for isolated A. pleuropneumoniae?
    • Ans: Chocolate agar media which is supplemented with NAD.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p637
  171. Que. _____________shows the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Peterson (CAMP) phenomenon or reaction when colonies are grown near a ? toxigenic Staphylocccus aureus.
    • Ans. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  172. Que. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) in swine can be categorized into _____, ___ and _____ forms.
    • Ans. Peracute, acute, chronic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  173. Que. The peracute form of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) in swine is characterized by sudden ______. In the acute form pigs have fevers, depression, anorexia, cyanosis, severe dyspnea with a marked abdominal component (thumping) and sometimes death within ____ hours. The chronic form is characterized by variable ______, decreased weight gain and other complications. Serotype __ has been connected with lameness due to necrotizing otesomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis in 8-12 week old pigs.
    • Ans. death, 36, cough, 2
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  174. Que. Transmission of APP is primarily by ______ to ______ and by _______. Recovered swine become ________. Typically, in herds where APP is endemic, the piglets are infected in the farrowing pen and a carrier ______ is the source.
    • Ans. Snout, snout, aerosolchronic carriers, sow.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  175. Que. APP is prevalent _____, different countries tend to have a different set of _____, and multiple serovars can be found in one facility.
    • Ans. Worldwide, serovars
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  176. Que. The gross findings in pigs with APP are _______, ________ and the presence of bloody froth and or clotted fibrin plugs in the trachea and bronchii.
    • Ans. Fibrinous pleuritis, pulmonary edema
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  177. Que. Primary damage to the capillary endothelium in alveoli may be the result of ________ produced by A. pleuropneumoniae in acute and peracute infections. This results in severe edema and fibrin deposition as well as _______ of capillaries and ischemic necrosis of ________ parenchyma.
    • Ans. Endotoxin, thrombosis, pulmonary
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 638
  178. Que. Mycoplasm ________ is probably the easiest of the porcine mycoplasmas to isolate.
    Ans. Hyorhinis
  179. Que. The age group most commonly affected by Mycoplasmal polycerositis is ____ to ___ weeks.
    Ans. 3 to 10
  180. Que. Mycoplasmal is spread via ________ on direct contact to baby pigs.
    Ans. Aerosolization
  181. Que. What joints are most frequently involved in mycoplasma infection in sevine?
    Ans. Stifle joints
  182. Que. ______ ______ is commonly found in the nasal passages of young pigs and stressful events may cause septicemia and seeding of the organism in the joints.
    • Ans. Mycoplasma hyorhinis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p639
  183. Que. Mycoplasmas are small, nonmotile, fastidious, gram-negative facultative anaerobes belonging to the class ___________?
    • Ans. Mollicutes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 640
  184. Que. What pathogen plays an important role in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) when concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) occurs?
    • Ans. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 640
  185. Que. What is probably the most common cause of chronic pneumonia in swine?
    • Ans. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 640
  186. Que. Inclusion body rhinitis, a disease caused by porcine ________, is found throughout the world.
    • Ans. Cytomegalovirus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 641
  187. Que. Porcine cytomegalovirus has been documented to modify the host defensive mechanism through inhibiting _____ function.
    • Ans. T-cell
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 641
  188. Que. Histiologic findings characteristic of porcine cytomegalovirus are the prescence of large basophilic _______ in the epithelial cells in both the mucosa and the mucosal glands.
    • Ans. Intranuclear
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 641
  189. Que. Swine influenza is caused by a Type A influenza virus that belongs to the family _________.
    • Ans. Orthomyxoviridae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 641
  190. Que. The main differentials for an animal with swine influenza include ___________.
    • Ans. bacterial pneumonias
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 15, p642
  191. Que. A definitive diagnosis for swine influenza can be made through ________.
    • Ans. isolation of the virus by swabbing nasal mucosa or by demonstration of seroconversion
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 15, p642
  192. Que. The primary route of transmission of swine influenza is via ____________.
    • Ans. direct with the viral particles that are found in high concentrations in nasal secretions
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 15, p642
  193. Que. Natural infections of swine with Metastrongylus spp. Include one or more of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, or M. elongates apri, with ______ being the most common.
    • Ans. M. elongates apri
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p642
  194. Que. What causes atelectasis during Metastrongylus elongatus?
    • Ans. characteristically, mucoid plugs containing adults and eggs obstruct the bronchioles in the diaphragmatic lobes, producing atelectasis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  195. Que. What causes �milk spots� in pigs?
    • Ans. Ascaris suum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  196. Que. What necropsy findings are found with Ascaris suum infection in pigs?
    • Ans. A. suum found in the small intestine, common bile duct, and white focal hepatic lesions (scarring) indicative of ascarid migration and sometimes called �milk spots�; larval migration through the lungs produces hemorrhage, inflammation, emphysema, and secondary bacterial pneumonia
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  197. Que. What types of leukocytes predominate in the lungs from Metastrongylus elongates infection?
    • Ans. eosinophils
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  198. Que. What disinfectant is efficacious for Ascaris suum?
    • Ans. Neopredisan (p-chloro-ovicide)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  199. Que. What does an ELISA for Ascaris suum test for?
    • Ans. Ascaris suum IgG
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  200. Que. What type of diarrhea does swine dysentery cause and in what age group?
    • Ans. severe mucohemorrhagic diarrhea of pigs postweaning age
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  201. Que. What is the primary etiologic agent of swine dysentery?
    • Ans. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  202. Que. What is the morphologic description of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?
    • Ans. gram-negative anaerobic spirochete
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  203. Que. How can Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection diagnosis be confirmed?
    • Ans. culture or PCR
    • Ref. LAM, 2ed ed., Ch. 15, p643
  204. Que. What are the clinical signs of swine dysentery?
    • Ans. severe diarrhea, fever, dehydration, weight loss, weakness developed over several days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  205. Que. What is the morphologic characteristic of acute swine dysentery?
    • Ans. diarrhea of acute onset is usually watery with large amounts of mucus accompanied by flecks of blood and white, mucofibrinous exudate
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p643
  206. Que. In natural outbreaks of swine dysentery, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is transmitted by ________ contact.
    • Ans. fecal-oral
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 645
  207. Que. The causative organism of swine dysentery, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, will survive up to __ days in moist ground or feces but is readily eliminated by disinfection in the absence of organic material.
    • Ans. 60
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 645
  208. Que. Swine dysentery is usually introduced into a facility by the purchase of an ______ carrier pig.
    • Ans. asymtomatic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 645
  209. Que. Nursing pigs are protected against _____ ______ by colostrum from previously infected sows and can be a source of Brachyspira-free pigs if weaned early and housed in a clean facility.
    • Ans. swine dysentery
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 645
  210. Que. What is the etiology of Proliferative Enteropathy in swine?
    • Ans. Lawsonia intracellularis (obligate intracellular, microaerophilic bacteria)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  211. Que. Name two differential diagnoses for hemorrhagic diarrhea in piglets that are newborn to several weeks old?
    • Ans. Clostridium perfringens, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  212. Que. Name three differential diagnoses for hemorrhagic enteritis in older pigs (>6 weeks)?
    • Ans. Lawsonia intracellularis, Samonella spp, Trichuris suis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  213. Que. What species can Lawsonia infect? Transmission?
    • Ans. Pig, hamster, dog, fox, ferret, horse, rat, rabbit; fecal-oral
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  214. Que. Gross lesions of Proliferative Enteropathy are found where (in swine)?
    • Ans. ileum, cecum, most proximal 1/3 of spiral colon
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  215. Que. What are two therapeutic options for Proliferative Enteropathy in swine?
    • Ans. 1. Benign neglect; disease can be self-limiting with spontaneous improvement after several weeks, 2. Antibiotics (however treatment is problematic because of lack of in vivo and in vitro data on antibiotic sensitivities of Lawsonia)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  216. Que. What is the most important diarrheal disease of newborn to postweanling-age swine?
    • Ans. Enteric colibacillosis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 15, P646
  217. Que. The species E. coli includes members that are normal gut flora as well as enteric pathogens that are further classified by antigenic serotype: (O) = __________, (K) = __________, (H) = __________, and (F) = __________.
    Ans. (O)=somatic, (K)=capsular, (H)=flagellar, and (F)=fimbrial
  218. Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 647
  219. Que. In swine, Colibacillosis is caused by pathogenic _______________, a gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod.
    • Ans. Escherichia coli
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 647
  220. Que. Neonatal diarrhea in piglets from 0 to 4 days of age is commonly caused by an _______________ strain of E. coli that possesses F4-type fimbrial adhesins, produces ST or LT enterotoxin, and belongs to the classical serotypes 0149, 08, 0147, or 0157.
    • Ans. enterotoxigenic (ETEC)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p. 647
  221. Que. True or false: Clostridial infection of the intestinal tract of young swine commonly results in a disease of moderate morbidity, but is self-limiting and non-fatal.
    • Ans. False; it commonly results in a necrotic enteritis with high mortality.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  222. Que. Between Clostridium perfringens Type A and Type C, which is the agent that will almost uniformly kill swine (if untreated)?
    • Ans. Type C; this will cause a fatal necrotic enteritis. Type A is a normal inhabitant of the swine intestine; it causes an enteritis that has a low mortality.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  223. Que. What are two main differential diagnoses for hemorrhagic diarrhea in piglets that are newborn to several weeks of age?
    • Ans. C. perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysentariae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  224. Que. What are some differential diagnoses for hemorrhagic diarrhea in older pigs?
    • Ans. Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, Trichuris suis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  225. Que. You�ve identified C. perfringens Type C in your Yucatan swine colony. Horrors! How might this agent have gotten into your colony?
    • Ans. Usually introduced by purchase of a carrier sow or by use of contaminated equipment, clothing, and housing.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  226. Que. At what age (pre-weaning, weaned, and older) is the greatest incidence of C. perfringens infection been reported in pigs?
    • Ans. Pre-weaning; most common in pigs from 12 hours to 7 days old. Peaks in incidence at 3 days of age. Has been seen in pigs 2-4 weeks old and in postweaning pigs.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  227. Que. If a pregnant sow is not immune to C. perfringens Type C, and she becomes infected, what chance will her offspring have of surviving an infection after birth?
    • Ans. None; see 100% mortality in pigs born to non-immune sows. Subsequent litters are protected by maternal immunity.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  228. Que. The C. perfringens bacillus if transferred from sows to pigs and between pigs by _____________ contact.
    • Ans. Fecal-oral
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  229. Que. Death in pigs from C. perfringens is from what cause?
    • Ans. Severe necrotizing enteritis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  230. Que. True or false: C. perfringens Type A invades the enterocytes, where an ? toxin is produced, thus killing the cell.
    • Ans. False; organism does not invade the enterocyte
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  231. Que. Name the toxins produced by C. perfringens Type A and Type C.
    • Ans. Type A: ? toxin Type C: trypsin-sensitive ?-toxin
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  232. Que. Describe the pathogenesis of C. perfringens Type C at the level of the enterocytes.
    • Ans. Organism attaches to enterocytes, effaces microvilli, damages terminal capillaries. Rapid, progressive necrosis follows of remaining villous enterocytes, the crypt cells, and mesenchymal structures in lamina propria and muscularis mucosa. Some organisms penetrate to muscle layers and produce emphysema of the gut wall, thrombosis of vessels.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  233. Que. True or false: disease with C. perfringens in swine is completely preventable.
    • Ans. True: we vaccinate for this.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  234. Que. True or false: pregnant sows that are at risk from recent exposure to C. perfringens may be vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, p. 648
  235. Que. Salmonella enterocolitis in swine can be subclinical or present with what multi-organ involvement?
    • Ans. septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, lymphadenitis, abortion and enterocolitis.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  236. Que. What is the etiology of Salmonella enterocolitis in swine?
    • Ans. Salmonella typhimurium and less frequently S. cholerasuis.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  237. Que. What are the clinical signs of Salmonella enterocolitis in swine?
    • Ans. watery, yellow diarrhea associated with fever, anorexia and dehydration (diarrhea containing blood or mucus is not a prominent feature).
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  238. Que. What is the differential diagnosis for watery, yellow diarrhea in weaned pigs?
    • Ans. salmonellosis, colibacillosis, transmissible gastroenteritis, coccidiosis, and nematodiasis.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  239. Que. How long may infected swine shed Salmonella organisms?
    • Ans. 5 months or more
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  240. Que. Why is treatment for Salmonella in swine contraindicated in the research setting?
    • Ans. because of the shedding status of clinically recovered animals and the zoonotic risks associated with husbandry and research use.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  241. Que. What is the etiology of transmissible gastroenteritis (TGEV) in swine.
    • Ans. a pleomorphic enveloped virus containing a positive-sense single stranded RNA genome of the Coronaviridae family
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  242. Que. What are the four viral diseases of the Coronaviridae family that naturally infect swine?
    • Ans. TGEV, hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  243. Que. What other viral diseases is TGE virus antigenically related?
    • Ans. feline infectious peritonitis and canine coronavirus.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  244. Que. What are the clinical signs of TGE infection in swine?
    • Ans. anorexia, vomiting and/or diarrhea develop within days in susceptible animals of all ages, particularly in the winter. Vomiting, severe diarrhea and high mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks of age. In herds with enzootic TGE, older animals will be asymptomatic, but diarrhea will develop in pigs 1-2 weeks old.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  245. Que. What is the differential diagnosis for yellow to white watery diarrhea in piglets that are newborn to several weeks old?
    • Ans. colibacillosis, TGE, rotavirus and coccidiosis.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  246. Que. What are the necropsy findings in piglets affected with TGE infection?
    • Ans. gross lesions are confined to the GI tract and consist of a stomach distended with milk; foci of hemorrhage on the diaphragmatic side of the mucosa, varying in size from several millimeters to 2 cm in diameter and a distended thin walled small intestine, which is filled with watery material and curds of undigested milk.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  247. Que. What is the most striking microscopic lesion found in piglets infected with TGE virus?
    • Ans. severe villus atrophy in the jejunum and ileum, which causes a massive loss of mature absorptive enterocytes. The villus crypt ratio is 1:1 compared to a normal ratio of 7:1.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 649.
  248. Que. Virus particles for TGE can be found in which cells?
    • Ans villus enterocytes
    • A. M cells
    • B. Lymphocytes
    • C. Macrophages within Peyer�s patches
    • D. All of the above
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  249. Que. What type of diarrhea is associated with TGE?
    • Ans. B. secretory
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  250. Que. True or False??? Vaccination of boars, gilts and sows will significantly reduce clinical signs.
    • Ans. False. Vaccination only moderately reduces clinical signs
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  251. Que. TGEV enters into production herds during the winter months due to probable reservoir transmission by __________ ____________.
    • Ans. wild birds
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  252. Que. What treatment is effective for piglets infected with TGEV?
    • Ans. No specific treatment � supportive care with fluids containing glucose and electrolytes and antibiotics for primary and opportunistic bacterial infections.
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  253. Que. List 2 conditions that make piglets more susceptible to porcine rotavirus.
    • Ans. 1) deprived of colostrums; 2) raised under gnotobiotic conditions in which the herd is free of natural infection
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  254. Que. Which of the seven rotavirus serogroups is the most common?
    • Ans. Group A rotavirus is most common
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  255. Que. What type of virus is a rotavirus?
    • Ans. nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA virus
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  256. Que. True or False??? Piglets born to gilts are at less risk than those farrowed by older sows, who are more likely to have naturally high virus neutralizing titers that protect the nursing piglets.
    • Ans. False - greater risk
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  257. Que. Where do rotaviruses replicate in the gastrointestinal tract of swine?
    • Ans. cytoplasm of enterocytes and M cells overlying Peyer�s patches; lining epithelium of the colon and cecum
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  258. Que. What type of diarrhea is produced as a result of porcine rotavirus infection?
    • Ans. Osmotic diarrhea due to decreased resorption of sodium, water and disaccharides in the jejunum and ileum (hyperosmolarity to the intestinal contents)
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  259. Que. What stage of the protozoan Balantidium coli is found in the cecum and anterior colon of swine usually as a commensal?
    • Ans. trophozoite-characteristially large ciliated ovoid structure with
    • micronucleus and macronucleus.Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0651
  260. Que. How can porcine rotavirus be prevented?
    • Ans. good sanitation; boost passive immunity by exposing replacement gilts to feces from the herd prior to their first parturition
    • Ref. LAM 2nd ed, Ch 15, p650
  261. Que. Is Balantidium coli a primary or secondary invader?
    • Ans. Secondary invader but with zoonotic potential.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0651
  262. Que. What three coccidian infect swine?
    • Ans. Eimeria spp. (8 species)-considered nonpathogenic.
    • Cryptosporidium parvum- subclinical infection in 6-12 week old.
    • Isospora suis-most important protozoal disease in nursing pigs (1-2 weeks old).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0651
  263. Que. What is the greatest risk of exposure for infection of Isospora parasuis?
    • Ans. contaminated environment
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p0651
  264. Que. What is the transmission route of swine coccidiosis?
    • Ans. ingestion of sporulated oocysts by the pig
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  265. Que. True or False. Giardiasis is a zoonotic disease. (swine chapter)
    • Ans. True.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  266. Que. What is the transmission route of swine giardiasis?
    • Ans. Giardia cysts are intermittently shed in feces and transmitted to other pigs by fecal-oral contact.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  267. Que. What stain would be used to diagnose swine giardiasis?
    • Ans. Detection of these parasites can be done using Giemsa-stained fecal smears or Giemsa-stained histologic sections.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  268. Que. True or False. Giardia exists as a commensal in the vast majority of domestic swine.
    • Ans. True.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  269. Que. Young swine can be infected with nematodes. What is the common name for Trichuris suis?
    • Ans. the swine whipworm
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  270. Que. True or False. Trichuris suis is a zoonotic disease that can infect humans and nonhuman primates. (swine chapter)
    • Ans. True.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p652
  271. Que. Trichuris suis eggs are infective after ________ weeks in the environment and for as long as _______ years.
    • Ans. 3 to 4, six
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0653
  272. Que. Prepatency for Trichuris suis is ______ weejks.
    • Ans. 6 to 7
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0653
  273. Que. _______________ is the small intestinal threadworm of swine that is most prevalent in warm climates and causes morbidity in suckling pigs.
    • Ans. Strongyloides ransomi
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0653
  274. Que. True or False. Larvae of S. ransomi can infect pigs in utero as well as by the oral, percutaneous, and transcolostral routes.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0653
  275. Que. Control of S. ransomi can be achieved by treating sows with _______ several weeks before farrowing to prevent transmission to piglets.
    • Ans. Ivermectin
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0653
  276. Que. What is the etiologic agent for Eperythrozoon suis?
    • Ans. Rickettsia.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  277. Que. Eperythrozoon suis (E. suis) is a member of the ________ family, tribe ________.
    • Ans. Rickettsiaceae, Rickettsieae.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  278. Que. The acute form of E. suis is mostly seen in what age pig?
    • Ans. Suckling or newly weaned piglets.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  279. Que. What species of domestic animal is the reservoir for E. suis?
    • Ans. Domestic swine.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  280. Que. E. suis can be mechanically transmitted by _______________?
    • Ans. Blood sucking arthropods, primarily lice, reuse of blood contaminated needles, surgical or tattoo instruments.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  281. Que. What is the common name for exudative epidermitis (ES) in swine?
    • Ans. Greasy pig disease.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  282. Que. What is the etiologic agent that causes ES in swine?
    • Ans. Staphylococcus hyicus.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  283. Que. What is the name of the toxins associated with S. hyicus?
    • Ans. Exfoliative toxin, or Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxin (SHET).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  284. Que. What are the three antigenically different toxins in SHET?
    • Ans. Exh A, Exh B, Exh C.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p654.
  285. Que. What are the signs of greasy pig disease?
    • Ans. Exudative epidermitis, esp. in groin, axillae, behind the ears, but can cover majority of body; erosions at coronary bands, vesicles or ulcers in mouth/tongue/snout; anorexia and dehydration common; death can occur in some animals.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  286. Que. What are differential diagnoses for greasy pig disease?
    • Ans. Swine pox, mange, ringworm, pityriasis rosea..
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  287. Que. What is the persistence of Staph. hyicus in the environment? What predisposes animals to infection?
    • Ans. Very persistent, and aerosol transmision is also possible; trauma to skin and group-housing piglest can predispose to infection..
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  288. Que. What are some ways to protect animals from infection?
    • Ans. Autogenous bacterins given to sows can protect litters; good sanitation esp. in farrowing pens; remove sharp/abrasive objects from farrowing pens; keep animals free from mange and lice.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  289. Que. What is the treatment for greasy pig disease?
    • Ans. Several antibiotics work but plasmid-mediated resistance is common. Topical treatment with antibiotics and antiseptic dips or shampoos in conjunction with antibiotics are also beneficial. Treatment is most effective when started early in course of disease.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  290. Que. What virus family and genus is Swine Pox virus in? What age is most commonly affected? What is the difference in clinical signs between young piglets and adults?
    • Ans. Family Poxviridae, genus Suipoxvirus (only member of this genus); usually animals less than 4 mo. of age; lesions are more widespread in younger piglets, in adults the lesions are usually more localized /focal.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 15, p. 655.
  291. Que. Where are most gross swine pox lesions commonly found?
    • Ans. On the ventral and lateral abdomen and chest and the medial aspects of the legs.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0656
  292. Que. How does the swine pox virus enter the body?
    • Ans. By traumatic injuries and by bites of the pig louse and flies.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0656
  293. Que. What is the hallmark sign of swine pox?
    • Ans. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies along with central nuclear clearing in affected epithelial cells.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0656
  294. Que. What is the cause of sarcoptic mange in swine?
    • Ans. Sarcoptes scabei var. suis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0656
  295. Que. There are two clinical forms of sarcoptic mange in swine. The acute pruritic, or ______________ form affects younger, growing pigs. The chronic or _______________ form is typically found in mature sows and boars.
    • Ans. 1) allergic hypersensitive; 2) hyperkeratotic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p0656
  296. Que: The hyperkeratotic form of mange is most often seen in young or mature animals?
    • Ans: mature animals
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  297. Que: How can mange from sarcoptes scabiei be prevented in swine?
    • Ans: 1) allow only mange-free SPF animals into the facility; 2) Elimination by hysterotomy rederivation; 3) Elimination of mites with acaricides such as ivermectin; 5) Use of a well developed biosecurity and surveillance program.to maintain a herd free of S. scabiei.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  298. Que: What are some control measure for scabies in swine?
    • Ans: 1) Cull swine with unusually severe chronic hyperkeratosis if possible; 2) Treat every pig in group twice daily with a 1 � 2 week interval; 3) follow treatment by thoroughly cleaning the environment , removing any bedding, and spraying area with acaricide.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  299. Que: How can one measure the success of a control program for scabies in swine?
    • Ans: 1) Monitor with an ELISA for serum antibody levels to S. scabei ; 2) Use periodic skin scraping; 3) monitor for prevalence of scratching and popular dermatitis lesions.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  300. Que: What treatment options are available for scabies in swine?
    • Ans: 1)Ivermectin given PO or SQ and repeated in 14 days; 2) Doramectin given IM; 3) Use of acaricides (amitraz, phosmet, and diazenon) for two or more treatments at 1 to 2 week intervals.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  301. Que: Which treatment has been shown to have a greater persistent efficacy (Ivermectin or Doramectin)?
    • Ans: Doramectin
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  302. Que: What research complications are associated with scabies in swine?
    • Ans: The intense rubbing associated with the disease is a potential threat to surgical incisions and implants in these models.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  303. Que: What ectoparasite is associated with pediculosis in swine?
    • Ans: Haematopinus suis (louse)
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  304. Que: What order and suborder does Haematopinus suis belong to?
    • Ans: Phthiraptera (order) and Anoplura (suborder)
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  305. Que: What is the size range for male and female Haematopinus suis?
    Ans: Females are 4 � 6 mm in length and males are 3.5 � 4.75 mm.
  306. Que: What other lice parasitizes swine?
    • Ans: None, Haematopinus suis is the only species of louse that affects swine.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  307. Que: How does the swine louse parasitize swine?
    • Ans: Haematopinus suis are sucking lice with specialized mouth parts to penetrate swine skin and feed on their blood.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  308. Que: What are the clinical signs associated with pediculosis?
    • Ans: Pruritus, poor growth, and anemia in young pigs.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  309. Que: Where on the body of swine do lice have a predilection to parasitize?
    • Ans: skin on the flank area, neck, axilla, groin, and the inner ears.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  310. Que: What is the typical size of lice eggs or nits in swine and where do they attach?
    • Ans: The eggs or nits are 1 � 2 mm in length and attach to the hair shafts.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  311. Que: How is pediculosis transmitted?
    • Ans: By direct pig-to-pig contact
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  312. Que: How long will the swine louse survive off the host?
    • Ans: 2 � 3 days.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  313. Que: How long is the life cycle of the Haematopinus suis and where does its life cycle?
    • Ans: Life cycle is 23 � 32 days which is spent entirely on the skin surface.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  314. Que: Haematopinus suis is considered a vector of what two diseases?
    • Ans: Swine pox and Eperythrozoon suis
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  315. Que: At necropsy, H. suis adults can be visualized where?
    • Ans: Around the inner ear, face, and neck
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  316. Que: Where can H. suis nits be visualized at necropsy?
    • Ans: Attached to the hair shafts.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  317. Que: What other skin lesions induced by H. suis can be visualized at necropsy?
    • Ans: Allergic dermatitis and mechanically induced skin lesions with hemorrhage.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  318. Que: What is the pathogenesis of H. Suis?
    • Ans: 1. The three instars of the nymph stage and egg laying females suck blood.
    • 2. Causes irritation and pruritus
    • 3. Clinical manifestations of rubbing and possible anemia in young pigs with heavy infestations.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  319. Que: What population of swine are considered to be reservoir hosts of H. suis?
    • Ans: Feral populations of Sus scrofa.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  320. Que: What preventative and control measures can be taken to prevent H. suis in swine?
    • Ans: 1. Allow only swine known to be lice-free into research facility.
    • 2. Avoid contact of domestic populations of swine with feral populations of swine.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  321. Que: Which disease is harder to treat - pediculosis or scabies in swine?
    • Ans: Scabies
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  322. Que: What are the treatment options for H. suis?
    • Ans: The same treatment that is effective for mites also works for lice. Can use sprays, dips, dusts, and oral and injectable ectoparasiticides. Most are effect when given as 2 treatments 2 weeks apart.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  323. Que: What chemical compounds are administered as sprays for treatment of pediculosis in swine?
    • Ans: malathion, methoxychlor, permethrin, diazinon, coumaphos
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  324. Que: What chemical compounds are administered as pour-on solutions for pediculosisin swine?
    • Ans: Phosmet, fenvalerate, and amitraz
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  325. Que: What drugs are typically used as oral or injectable treatments for pediculosis in swine?
    • Ans: avermectins (primarily ivermectin and doramectin)
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  326. Que: Avermectin treatment is also effective for what kind of helminths in swine?
    • Ans: ascarids and lungworms
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  327. Que: What research complications are associated with pediculosis:
    • Ans: 1. Severe infestations may cause anemia in young swine.
    • 2. Rubbing may damage surgical incisions
    • 3. The use of potentially toxic treatments to remove lice may interfere with some research studies.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  328. Que: What species of Brucella causes systemic infection and clinical disease, including infertility, in swine?
    • Ans: Brucella suis, biovars 1, 2, and 3
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  329. Que: What biovar of B. suis is the most common cause of disease in swine?
    • Ans: Biovar 3
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  330. Que: Describe morphologically the characteristics of B. suis?
    • Ans: it is a non-motile, non-spore-forming, small gram-negative aerobic bacillus or coccobacillus.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 657
  331. Que. B. suis infection vary and range from no obvious disease to classical signs, which include ______, infertility, metritis, ______, lameness, spondylitis, and posterior paralysis.
    • Ans. abortion, orchitis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  332. Que. The clinical disease of B suis in piglets of weaning age consists of ______ and ________.
    • Ans. spondylitis, posterior paralysis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  333. Que. The European hare is a carrier for biovar ____ and has been linked to brucellosis in European swine facilities.
    • Ans. 2
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  334. Que. Transmission is most frequently through contaminated discharges from infected swine being _____ by a susceptible animal. Additionally, nursing piglets frequently become infected while _______. B. suis is present in ______ of infected boars
    • Ans. ingested, nursing, semen
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  335. Que. Gross lesions from B suis are variable but generally consist of one or more ________ and there may be erosions of mucous membranes and __________.
    • Ans. abcesses, seminal vesiculitis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  336. Que. The best prevention of B suis is to allow only __________ swine from validated herds into a facility. Test and elimination of seropositives is difficult because of problems with _______ and ________ serological assays.
    • Ans. brucellosis-free, specificity and sensitivity
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  337. Que. Brucellosis is a ______ and ________ disease in the United States.
    • Ans. zoonotic, reportable
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  338. Que. ________ is one of the most common species implicated in cases with human brucellosis.
    • Ans. B suis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  339. Que. Leptospira interrogans is a gram _____, motile aerobic spirochete. The serovar _____ is the most common cause of clinical leptospirosis in swine and the serovar _______ is commonly found in serologic surveys and sometimes correlated with clinical disease.
    • Ans. negative, pomona, bratislava
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  340. Que. Leptospira serovar the are occasionally found to infect swine include __________ from the brown rat, ______ from small rodents, _______ from cattle, _______ from dogs, ________ from wildlife, and ________ from opossums, skunks, and raccoons.
    • Ans. icterohaemorrhagiae, sejroe, hardjo, canicola, grippotyphosa, tarassovi
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  341. Que. The acute form of Leptospirosis is characterized by a mild disease that resolves within ____ week and usually goes unrecognized. Rarely seen are piglets less than _____ week of age infected with strains from the serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae. The chronic form is characterized by late-term abortions, ______ and weak newborn piglets. This is particularly true of serovar ________ infection. Infertility of the sow is seen following infections due to serovar __________, however reproductive performance following abortions due to ______ is not affected.
    • Ans. one, 12, stillbirths, pomona, bratislava, pomona
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  342. Que. Transmission of Leptospirosis is by direct or indirect contact with a carrier animal which harbors leptospires in the _______ or ________.
    • Ans. renal tubules, genital tract
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p 658
  343. Que. How is leptospires shed in swine into the environment?
    Ans. Urine and genital fluids
  344. Que. In swine, serovar bratis lava (Leptospirosis) is spread by what mode?
    Ans. Venereal transmission
  345. Que. Which one is not a sero group of leptospirosis in swine?a) pomona b) australis c) tarassovi d) tuenchen
    Ans. D) tuenchen
  346. Que. What is the route of infection for Leptospirosis in swine?
    Ans. Mucous membranes mouth, nasal passage, eye and vagina
  347. Que. A __________ program prevents potential vectors, such as rodents and feral swine, from transmitting Leptospirosis.
    Ans. Biosecurity
  348. Que. What antibiotic is used to control clinical signs of Leptospirosis?
    Ans. Oxytetracycline or chlortetracycline
  349. Que. _________ ________ is one of the major infectious causes of embryonic and fetal death.
    • Ans. Porcine Parvovirus (PPV)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p659
  350. Que. The major reservoir for Porcine parvovirus is _________?
    • Ans. Environmental
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  351. Que. One gross lesion of Porcine parvovirus is confined to the __________, which may be edematous and have white, chalklike deposits.
    • Ans. Placenta
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  352. Que. Porcine parvovirus is one of the primary diagnostic considerations when swine exhibit __________ or _________ death.
    • Ans. Embryonic, fetal
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  353. Que. Identifying mummified fetuses that have a crown-rump length of ? ___ cm is a strong indicator that Porcine parvovirus is the infectious agent at play.
    • Ans. 17
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  354. Que. Hallmark signs of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome include _____________ _____________, _________ ____________ _____________, and _____________ __________ seen in a wide range of animals.
    • Ans. Reproductive disorders, high piglet mortality, respiratory disease
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  355. Que. The causative agent of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is a single-stranded RNA virus classified in the order ____________, family ____________, and genus _____________?
    • Ans. Nidovirales, Arteriviridae, Arterivirus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p 660
  356. Que. Dyspnea and tachypnea are the most characteristic clinical signs in PRRSV-infected ______ pigs.
    • Ans. Newborn
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 661
  357. Que. As pigs reach _______ age, the clinical signs shift to include fever, pneumonia, failure to thrive, and significant mortality caused by otherwise non-life-threatening concurrent bacterial infections.
    • Ans. Postweaning
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15 p. 661
  358. Que. Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) refers to a cascade of physiologic events and clinical signs that occur in pigs that have a __________________.
    • Ans. mutation in the calcium-release channel protein (ryanodine receptor [RYR])
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 662
  359. Que. Porcine stress syndrome mutation results in a hypersensitive triggering mechanism of the calcium-release channel in the skeletal muscle _________
    • in response to various stressors, such as ________________.
    • Ans. sarcoplasmic reticulum, gas anesthetics or stressful environmental conditions
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 662
  360. Que. The disease PSS is best controlled by ___________________.
    • Ans. identifying those animals who carry the genetic mutation and eliminating them from the breeding stock
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 662
  361. Que. Salt poisoning, also known as sodium ion toxicosis, by far, the most common initiator for the condition is __________.
    • Ans. water deprivation
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch. 15, p. 662
  362. Que. What additional clinical symptoms occur with excessive salt consumption vs water deprevation causing salt poisoning in pigs?
    • Ans. vomiting and diarrhea with excessive salt consumption
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  363. Que. What is the pathogenesis of salt poisoning in pigs?
    • Ans. hyperosmolarity of the CNS; animal hydrates, osmotic pressure causes water to be drawn into the CNS resulting in swelling & edema
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  364. Que. What are the histologic findings in salt poisoning of pigs?
    • Ans. eosinophilic cuffing fo the menigeal and cerebral vessels; subacute condition, laminar subcortical polioencephalomalacia
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  365. Que. What is the treatment for salt poisoning in pigs?
    • Ans. treatment is generally ineffective, condition is likely to be exacerbated by rehydration
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  366. Que. Which region of the pig stomach is involved in the condition, gastric ulcers?
    • Ans. pars oesophagea
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  367. Que. What are the clinical signs of the peracute condition of gastric ulcers in pigs?
    • Ans. apparently healthy pigs found dead
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  368. Que. What are the clinical signs of the acute condition of gastric ulcers in pigs?
    • Ans. pallor, weakness, increased respiratory rate, vomiting blood, passage of bloody, tarry feces
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  369. Que. What are the clinical signs of the subacute or chronic condition of gastric ulcers in pigs?
    • Ans. anemia, anorexia, passage of intermittent or persistent dark feces
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  370. Que. What are the differential diagnosis of gastric ulcer condition in pigs?
    • Ans. Salmonella choleraesuis, transmissible gastroenteritis, intestinal hemorrhagic syndrome
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  371. Que. Is the pars oesophagea in pigs glandular or nonglandular?
    • Ans. nonglandular
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 15, p663
  372. Que. How is gastric ulcers prevented in pigs?
    • Ans. appropriate food of diet that is coarsely ground (not less than 700 um in size), not contain excessive unsaturated fatty acids and the right balance of vitamin E and selenium, minimize stressful conditions
    • Ref. LAM, 2ed ed., Ch. 15, p663
  373. Que. What are the most common tumors reported in swine?
    • Ans. LSA, embyonal nephroma, and melanoma
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 664
  374. Que. What is the most common form of swine LSA?
    • Ans. multicentric
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 664
  375. Que. Which of the sexes in swine has a predeliction for embyona nephroma?
    • Ans. female
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 664
  376. Que. Which breeds of swine have the highest incidence of melanomas?
    • Ans. Sinclair (85% by age 1 yr), Duroc, and Hormel
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 664
  377. Que. _____ and _____ hernias are two of the most common developmental defects found in swine.
    • Ans. inguinal, umbilical
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 665
  378. Que. ______ is one of the main causes of noninfectious neonatal mortality in swine.
    • Ans. Starvation
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 665
  379. Que. Neonatal pigs are deficient in hepatic _______; consequently, they are very susceptible to hypoglycemia with short periods of milk deprivation (36 hrs).
    • Ans. gluconeogenesis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 665
  380. Que. ____ deficiency anemia of the microcytic, hypochromic type occurs commonly in suckling pigs that are not supplemented after birth.
    • Ans. Iron
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 665
  381. Que. The most plausible explanation for the problem of tail, vulva, ear and flank biting is the lack of sufficient ______ ______ for laboratory housed swine.
    • Ans. environmental enrichment
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 15, pg. 665

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview