Muscles of the Upper Extremity

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  1. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin
    • Pisiform

    • Insertion
    • Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger

    • Action
    • Abducts little (5th) finger

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  2. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin
    • Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

    • Insertion
    • Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    • Action
    • Abducts thumb and helps oppose it

    • Innervation
    • Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Superficial palmar branch of the radial artery
  3. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin
    • Posterior surfaces of ulna, radius and interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Base of 1st metacarpal

    • Action
    • Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Posterior interosseous artery
  4. Adductor Pollicis
    • Origin
    • Oblique head: bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals; Transverse head: anterior surface of body of 3rd metacarpal

    • Insertion
    • Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    • Action
    • Draws 1st metacarpal laterally to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Deep palmar arterial arch
  5. Anconeus
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna

    • Action
    • Assists triceps in extending forearm; stabilizes elbow joint; abducts ulna during pronation

    • Innervation
    • Radial nerve (C7, C8 and T1) (C7, C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Middle collateral branch of deep brachial artery; Recurrent interosseous artery
  6. Biceps Brachii
    • Origin
    • Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula; Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis

    • Action
    • Supinates forearm and, when it is supine, flexes forearm

    • Innervation
    • Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6 ) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Muscular branches of brachial artery
  7. Brachialis
    • Origin
    • Distal half of anterior surface of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna

    • Action
    • Major flexor of forearm -- flexes forearm in all positions

    • Innervation
    • Musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Muscular branches of brachial artery, recurrent radial artery
  8. Brachioradialis
    • Origin
    • Proximal 2/3 of lateral supracondyle ridge of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Lateral surface of distal end of radius

    • Action
    • Flexes forearm

    • Innervation
    • Radial nerve (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Radial recurrent artery
  9. Coracobrachialis
    • Origin
    • Tip of coracoid process of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Middle third of medial surface of humerus

    • Action
    • Helps to flex and adduct arm

    • Innervation
    • Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Muscular branches of brachial artery
  10. Deltoid
    • Origin
    • Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

    • Action
    • Anterior part: flexes and medially rotates arm; Middle part: abducts arm; Posterior part: extends and laterally rotates arm

    • Innervation
    • Axillary nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery
  11. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Base of 3rd metacarpal

    • Action
    • Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of radial nerve (C7 and C8) (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Radial artery
  12. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Origin
    • Lateral supracondyle ridge of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Base of 2nd metacarpal

    • Action
    • Extend and abduct hand at wrist joint

    • Innervation
    • Radial nerve (C6 and C7) (C7, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Radial artery
  13. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna

    • Insertion
    • Base of 5th metacarpal

    • Action
    • Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  14. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Extensor expansion of 5th digit

    • Action
    • Extends 5th digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Interosseous recurrent artery
  15. Extensor Digitorum
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Extensor expansions of medial four digits

    • Action
    • Extends medial four digits at metacarpophalangeal joints; Extends hand at wrist joint

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Interosseous recurrent and posterior interosseous arteries
  16. Extensor Indicis
    • Origin
    • Posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Extensor expansion of 2nd digit

    • Action
    • Extends 2nd digit and helps to extend hand

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Posterior interosseous artery
  17. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Origin
    • Posterior surfaces of radius and interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Base of proximal phalanx of thumb

    • Action
    • Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal joint

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Posterior interosseous artery
  18. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin
    • Posterior surface of middle 1/3 of ulna and interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Base of distal phalanx of thumb

    • Action
    • Extends distal phalanx of thumb at carpometacarpal and interphalangeal joints

    • Innervation
    • Posterior interosseous nerve (C7 and C8), the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Posterior interosseous artery
  19. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Origin
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Base of 2nd metacarpal

    • Action
    • Flexes and abducts hand (at wrist)

    • Innervation
    • Median nerve (C6 and C7) (C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  20. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Origin
    • Humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus; Ulnar head: olecranon and posterior border of ulna

    • Insertion
    • Pisiform bone, hook of hamate bone, and 5th metacarpal bone

    • Action
    • Flexes and adducts hand (at wrist)

    • Innervation
    • Ulnar nerve (C7 and C8) (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  21. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Origin
    • Proximal 3/4 of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Base of the distal phalanx of digits 2 - 5

    • Action
    • Flexes distal phalanges at distal interphalangeal joints of medial four digits; assists with flexion of hand

    • Innervation
    • Medial part: ulnar nerve (C8 and T1); Lateral part: anterior interosseous branch of median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar and anterior interosseous arteries
  22. Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis
    • Origin
    • Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

    • Insertion
    • Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of little finger

    • Action
    • Flexes proximal phalanx of little (5th) finger

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  23. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Origin
    • Anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane

    • Insertion
    • Base of distal phalanx of thumb

    • Action
    • Flexes phalanges of 1st digit (thumb)

    • Innervation
    • Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Anterior interosseous artery
  24. Infraspinatus
    • Origin
    • Infraspinous fossa of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Middle facet on greater tuberosity of humerus

    • Action
    • Laterally rotate arm; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

    • Innervation
    • Suprascapular nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries
  25. Dorsal Interossei
    • Origin
    • Dorsal 1 - 4: Adjacent sides of two metacarpals (bipennate muscles)

    • Insertion
    • Dorsal 1 - 4: Extensor expansions and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2 - 4

    • Action
    • Dorsal 1 - 4: Abduct digits from axial line and act with lumbricals to flex metacarpophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Dorsal 1 - 4: Dorsal and palmar metacarpal arteries
  26. Palmar Interossei
    • Origin
    • Palmar 1 - 3: Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpals (unipennate muscles)

    • Insertion
    • Palmar 1 - 3: Extensor expansions of digits and bases of proximal phalanges of digits 2, 4 and 5

    • Action
    • Palmar 1 - 3: Adduct digits toward axial line and assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Palmar 1 - 3: Palmar metacarpal arteries
  27. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Origin
    • Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs

    • Insertion
    • Floor of intertubercular groove of humerus

    • Action
    • Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing

    • Innervation
    • Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, and C8) (C6, C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Thoracodorsal artery
  28. Levator Scapulae
    • Origin
    • Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae

    • Insertion
    • Superior part of medial border of scapula

    • Action
    • Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula

    • Innervation
    • Dorsal scapula (C5) and cervical (C3 and C4) nerves (C3, C4, C5)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Dorsal scapular artery
  29. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    • Origin
    • Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

    • Insertion
    • Medial border of 5th metacarpal

    • Action
    • Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  30. Opponens Pollicis
    • Origin
    • Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium

    • Insertion
    • Lateral side of 1st metacarpal

    • Action
    • Draws 1st metacarpal laterally to oppose thumb toward center of palm and rotates it medially

    • Innervation
    • Recurrent branch of median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Superficial palmar branch of the radial artery
  31. Palmaris Longus
    • Origin
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus

    • Insertion
    • Distal half of flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis

    • Action
    • Flexes hand (at wrist) and tightens palmar aponeurosis

    • Innervation
    • Median nerve (C7 and C8) (C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery
  32. Pectoralis Major
    • Origin
    • Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle; Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages, and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

    • Insertion
    • Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

    • Action
    • Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly; Acting alone: clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocostal head extends it

    • Innervation
    • Lateral and medial pectoral nerves; clavicular head (C5 and C6, sternocostal head (C7, C8, and T1) (C5, C6, C7, C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk
  33. Pectoralis Minor
    • Origin
    • 3rd to 5th ribs near their costal cartilages

    • Insertion
    • Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula

    • Action
    • Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall

    • Innervation
    • Medial pectoral nerves; clavicular head (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk
  34. Pronator Quadratus
    • Origin
    • Distal 1/4 of anterior surface of ulna

    • Insertion
    • Distal 1/4 of anterior surface of radius

    • Action
    • Pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together

    • Innervation
    • Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8 and T1) (C8, T1)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Anterior interosseous artery
  35. Pronator Teres
    • Origin
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna

    • Insertion
    • Middle of lateral surface of radius

    • Action
    • Pronates and flexes forearm (at elbow)

    • Innervation
    • Median nerve (C6 and C7) (C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Ulnar artery, anterior recurrent ulnar artery
  36. Rhomboid Major and Minor
    • Origin
    • Minor: nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae; Major: spinous processes of T2 - T5 vertebrae

    • Insertion
    • Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle

    • Action
    • Retract scapula and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall

    • Innervation
    • Dorsal scapular nerve ( C4 and C5) (C4, C5)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Dorsal scapular artery
  37. Serratus Anterior
    • Origin
    • Superolateral surfaces of upper 8 or 9 ribs at the side of chest

    • Insertion
    • Vertebral border of scapula

    • Action
    • Draws scapula forward and upward; abducts scapula and rotates it; stabilizes vertebral border of scapula

    • Innervation
    • Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7) (C5, C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Circumflex scapular artery
  38. Subscapularis
    • Origin
    • Subscapular fossa of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Lesser tuberosity of humerus

    • Action
    • Medially rotates arm and adducts it; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

    • Innervation
    • Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Subscapular artery
  39. Supinator
    • Origin
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and annular ligaments, supinator fossa and crest of ulna

    • Insertion
    • Lateral, posterior and anterior surfaces of proximal 1/3 of radius

    • Action
    • Supinates forearm (i.e., rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly)

    • Innervation
    • Deep branch of radial nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Recurrent interosseous artery
  40. Supraspinatus
    • Origin
    • Supraspinous fossa of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Superior facet on greater tuberosity of humerus

    • Action
    • Initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with other rotator cuff muscles

    • Innervation
    • Suprascapular nerve (C4, C5 and C6) (C4, C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Suprascapular artery
  41. Teres Major
    • Origin
    • Dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

    • Action
    • Adducts and medially rotates arm

    • Innervation
    • Lower subscapular nerve (C6 and C7) (C6, C7)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries
  42. Teres Minor
    • Origin
    • Superior part of lateral border of scapula

    • Insertion
    • Inferior facet on greater tuberosity of humerus

    • Action
    • Laterally rotate arm; helps to hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

    • Innervation
    • Axillary nerve (C5 and C6) (C5, C6)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries
  43. Trapezius
    • Origin
    • Medial third of superior nuchal line; external occipital protruberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous processes of C7 - T12 vertebrae

    • Insertion
    • Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

    • Action
    • Elevates, retracts and rotates scapula; superior fibers elevate, middle fibers retract, and inferior fibers depress scapula; superior and inferior fibers act together in superior rotation of scapula

    • Innervation
    • Spinal root of accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor) and cervical nerves (C3 and C4) (pain and proprioception) (XI, C3, C4)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Transverse certical artery
  44. Triceps Brachii
    • Origin
    • Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove

    • Insertion
    • Proximal end of olecranon process of ulna and fascia of forearm

    • Action
    • Chief extensor of forearm; long head steadies head of abducted humerus

    • Innervation
    • Radial nerve (C6, C7 and C8) (C6, C7, C8)

    • Arterial Supply
    • Branches of deep brachial artery
Author
ID
79893
Card Set
Muscles of the Upper Extremity
Description
muscle origin, insertion, action, innervation, blood supply of the muscles of the upper extremity
Updated
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