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% of red blood cells relevatn to fluid volume
Increased fluid in the interstitium
What major solute plasma protien assits in oncotic pressure?
ablumin helps bring H20 back into the capillaries
What causes edema?
- Increased hydrostatic pressure (BP)
- Loss of plasma protien albumin due to liver damage
- Lymphatic obstruction
- Increased capillary permeability due to inflammation
refers to cell size
refers to hemoglobin content within a cell
What type of anemia is pernicious anemia?
- AKA B12 deficiency
What type of anemia is Iron deficiency anemia?
Hypochromic - microcytic
What is the cause for Iron deficiency anemia?
Loss of Iron and Hemoglobin resulting in hypoxia due to blood loss, pregnancy, or lack of iron supplimentation intake
What type of anemia is folate anemia
What are the causes of Folate deficiency?
- Lack of folate causes premature cell death.
- (Basically same as pernicious anemia, but without intrisic factor IF)
Uncontrolled proliferation of malignant WBC's causing overcrowding in bone marrow decreasing production of other blood cell types
What are the 2 methods for classifying leukemia?
- 1. Cell origin (myeloid or lymphoid).
- 2. degree of differentation that took place before the cell became malignant.
- (acute = increased growth and less differentation)
- (chronic = less growth and increased differentation)
Common signs and symptoms of cancer?
Porophylactic treatemtn such as removing a breast cancer
treatment designed to reduce complications and prolong life. Not a cure. Can include chemo and radiation.
Autocrine stimulation and Ras
substance secreted by cancer cells that stimulates their own growth
abscence of differentation
Carcinoma's are found where
Sarcoma's are found where?
generation of new blood vessles
Site of tumor origin
spread of cancer from primary to distant site
protective ends, or caps, on each chromosome that limit the number of times a cell can divide
beggining of tumor development
carcinoma in situ
Pre-invasive epithelial tuomr of grandular or squamos cell origin
How are tumor markers used
- Screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer
- To help diagnose a specific type of tumor
- Follow up testing after treatment
a cells mechanism that tells them ot self destroct when growth is excessive
Malignant or benign
Malignant or benign?
enzyme required for gastric absorption of dietary vitamin B12
What are the causes of pernicious anemia?
- Lack of vitamin B12 absorption due to lack of IF causing abnomrla DNA & RNA synthesis, which causes premature cell death.
- Usually congenital genetic disorder or gastritis and death to parietla cells
What are the laboratory diagnostic tests used to detect anemia?
- Differential count
- Reticulocyte count
- Chemical analysis
- Blood coagulation
Bone marrow production
concentration of hemoglobin
PT, PTT, Thrombin time
larger areas of bleeding ...bruise
Pinpoint bleeding on skin
condition of bleeding in the tissues (includes petechiae and eccymosis.)
What are the 3 causes of anemia
- altered production of erythrocytes
- blood loss
- increased erythrocyte destruction
Malignant or benign?
Malignant (only exception.)
5 years of no signs/symptoms after diagnosis and treatment
What tumor markers are routinely used as a screening test?
- alph-fetoprotien (AFP) Liver and germ cell produce this into blood
- Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Prostate secretes this into blood
mutated in cancer usually accelarates the proliferation of cells
Identify the difference between benign and malignant tumors
Benign tumors are well encapsulated and well differentiated and do not invade regional lymph nodes.
Malignant tumors have a rapid growth rate, lack differentiation, lack a capsule, and invade blood vessles.
Substance that controls cell growht or regulator of cell growth
What is the functions/actions and target tissues of ADH
- water balance regulator; ADH stimulates thirst due to increasing plasma osmolarity.
- Increases renal tubular permeability absorbing more water thus increasing urine concentration
What is the function/actions and target tissues of Aldosterone
- Increase sodium reabsorption while increasing Potassium secretion into the renal tubule.
- Aldosterone is secreted when Potassium is increased or sodium is decreased.
What is the function of angiotensin II?
Stimulates secreation of aldosterone causing vasocontriction to increase BP
Is sickle cell anemia inherited?
What is the defect and what changes shape with sickle cell anemia?
abnormal hemoglobin production due to genetic mutation of amino acid valine and deoxygeneration and dehydration givign the RBC's thier abnormal shape.
Why does ischemia nad infarction occur with sickle cell anemia?
because sickled erythrocytes plug vessles
Why do we occassionally see jaundice and splenomegaly?
accumulated end products of red cell destruction (hemolysis)
What cell type becomes malignant in multiple myeloma?
Where is the primary site of multiple myeloma destruction?
How is blood cell production effected in multiple myeloma
Low blood cell production
What happens to the involved bone in multiple myeloma?
Osteoclasts, relaeased by plasma cells (not normal) destroys bone
What is the cuasitive organism for infectioous mononucleosis
How is Mononucleosis transmitted
Do lymph nodes swell with Mononucleosis infectious
What are the most common S/S with infectious mononucleosis?
flue like, fever, fatigue, sore throat
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