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- envelope (maybe)
viral capsid made up of
viral envelope made up of
protein and phospholipid
all living organisms have either DNA or RNA, or both?
both DNA and RNA
1. binds to specific chemical receptor on host mem.
2. viral nucleic acid penetrates cell
how are animal viruses engulfed?
What is a bacteriophage?
bacteria infecting virus
lytic infection v. lysogenic infection
lytic = virus takes over host machinery and host cell lysis
lysogenic = viral DNA is incorporated into host genome
How does virus with RNA incorporate itself into host genome?
requires reverse transcriptase
What is the latent period?
cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses (bursts)
What is a prophage?
dormant virus in bacterial cell
Types of viruses (nucleic acids):
- single stranded RNA
- double stranded RNA
- single stranded DNA
- double stranded DNA
plus = proteins made are directly translated from RNA
minus = complement to mRNA and must first be transcribed to tRNA before translation
only infect plants
naked proteins capable of reproducing themselves without DNA/RNA
How does human body fight against viral infection?
How do antibodies fight off viral infection? (bind and fight)
recognize spikes on envelope
bind to viral protein and destroy infected cells
CO2 as Carbon source
organic molecules as C source
light as energy source
organic or inorganic molecules as energy source
prokaryotic DNA (how is it different from eukaryotic?)
no histones (archaea does have histones)
shapes of bacteria
- cocci (round)
- bacilli (rod)
- spirochete (helical)
What are mesosomes?
invaginations of plasma membrane
What does amphipathic mean?
both polar and nonpolar
How do peripheral proteins bind to membrane?
What moderates membrane fluidity in eukaryotes? prokaryotes?
eukaryotes = cholesterol (reduce fluidity)
prokaryotes = hapanoids (reduce fluidity)
What is a hypertonic solution?
more solute inside
What is a hypotonic solution?
more solute outside
permeability across membrane depends on....
size and polarity
Are more polar molecules more or less permeable across membrane?
Bacterial envelope (composition and function)
protects membrane and everything inside
made up of peptidoglycan
most bacteria are hypertonic or hypotonic?
Gram + bacteria
thick peptidoglycan layer
Gram - bacteria
thin peptidoglycan layer
staining of gram + and - bacteria
positive = purple
negative = pink
Is prokaryotic flagella the same as eukaryotic flagella?
prokaryotic flagella rotate
Where does prokaryotic flagella get the energy to rotate?
proton gradient, not ATP
binary fission (2 identical daughter cells)
What goes on in binary fission?
DNA polymerase begins in circle
move in on different ends and make complementary strand
How can bacteria recombine genetic information?
What is required in order for conjugation to occur
plasmid must contain gene that codes for sex pilus
What is the sex pilus?
bridge that connects the 2 bacteria
What codes for sex pilus?
resistance to some antibiotics
naked transfer of DNA from env. (nonviral)
lysis of other bacteria
or added in lab
viruses in lysogenic cycle release from bacteria A and infect bacteria B
injecting bacteria A into bacteria B
endospores in what kind of bacteria?
What are endospores resistant to?
heat, UV radiation, chemical disinfectants
What are fungi? (cell type and energy source)
What is the septa?
Fungi is an exodigester. What does that mean?
digests food outside the body
What is yeast?
A unicellular fungi
Is yeast an aerobe or anaerobe?
more ATP with O2 but can survive without O2
Yeast without oxygen produce what
ethanol results from fermentation
budding (asexual reproduction)
Fungi reproduction (haploid or diploid)?
quicker under unfavorable conditions
Can fungi reproduce sexually or asexually?
When sexually and when asexually?
asexual = good conditions (identical offspring)
sexual = tough conditions (diff. offspring)
contains all DNA (except some in mitochondria)
RNA and DNA in nucleus
RNA can leave through pores
Two kinds of endocytosis?
phagocytosis v. pinocytosis
- phagocytosis (eat)
- pinocytosis (drink)
What is phagocytosis?
membrane reaches out and engulfs particle
extra fluid engulfed by invagination of cell membrane
What do lysosomes do?
break down macromolecules
What happens to material not degraded by lysosome?
smooth ER and lipids
what is the importance in storing triglycerides
energy storage & body temperature regulation
smooth ER and toxins
oxidizes foreign substances detoxifies drugs, pesticides, toxins
What are peroxisomes?
vesicles in cytosol
produce and break down H2O2
Which are larger, microtubules or microfilaments?
examples of microtubules
flagella and cilia
example of microfilaments
9 + 2 arrangement
flagella v. cilia movement
- flagella = wiggle
- cilia = whip (lateral)
Where do humans have cilia
fallopian tubes and respiratory tract
tight junctions - where? and what do they do there?
epithelial tissue in bladder, intestines, and kidney
prevent waste fluids from seeping out
join cells at a single point
attach to cytoskeleton (STRONG)
desmosomes - where?
tissues that experience much stress (skin, epithelial)
small molecules and ions pass through
Do eukaryotes or prokaryotes have centrioles?
does mitochondria have histones or nucleosomes?
similar to prokaryotes
What does disinfecting do?
cleans off a surface of any pathogenic microbes -
can kill some nonpathogenic microbes in the process
bacteriophages integrate into host nucleus or mitochondria?
bacteria are prokaryotes and have neither nucleus or mitochondria