Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Author:
natalieplana
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80063
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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Updated:
2011-04-20 22:20:28
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NPMCAT
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Microbiology, Eukaryotes
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  1. viral structure
    • capsid
    • genes
    • envelope (maybe)
  2. viral capsid made up of
    protein coat
  3. viral envelope made up of
    protein and phospholipid
  4. all living organisms have either DNA or RNA, or both?
    both DNA and RNA
  5. viral infection:
    1. binds to specific chemical receptor on host mem.

    2. viral nucleic acid penetrates cell

    3. engulfed
  6. how are animal viruses engulfed?
    endocytosis
  7. What is a bacteriophage?
    bacteria infecting virus
  8. lytic infection v. lysogenic infection
    lytic = virus takes over host machinery and host cell lysis

    lysogenic = viral DNA is incorporated into host genome
  9. How does virus with RNA incorporate itself into host genome?
    requires reverse transcriptase
  10. What is the latent period?
    cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses (bursts)
  11. What is a prophage?
    dormant virus in bacterial cell
  12. Types of viruses (nucleic acids):
    • single stranded RNA
    • double stranded RNA
    • single stranded DNA
    • double stranded DNA
  13. plus-strand RNA
    minus-strand RNA
    plus = proteins made are directly translated from RNA

    minus = complement to mRNA and must first be transcribed to tRNA before translation
  14. viroids
    only infect plants
  15. prions
    naked proteins capable of reproducing themselves without DNA/RNA
  16. How does human body fight against viral infection?
    antibodies
  17. How do antibodies fight off viral infection? (bind and fight)
    recognize spikes on envelope

    bind to viral protein and destroy infected cells
  18. autotrophs
    CO2 as Carbon source
  19. heterotrophs
    organic molecules as C source
  20. phototrophs
    light as energy source
  21. chemotrophs
    organic or inorganic molecules as energy source
  22. prokaryotic DNA (how is it different from eukaryotic?)
    no nucleus

    no histones (archaea does have histones)

    circular
  23. shapes of bacteria
    • cocci (round)
    • bacilli (rod)
    • spirochete (helical)
  24. What are mesosomes?
    invaginations of plasma membrane
  25. What does amphipathic mean?
    both polar and nonpolar
  26. How do peripheral proteins bind to membrane?
    ionically
  27. What moderates membrane fluidity in eukaryotes? prokaryotes?
    eukaryotes = cholesterol (reduce fluidity)

    prokaryotes = hapanoids (reduce fluidity)
  28. What is a hypertonic solution?
    more solute inside
  29. What is a hypotonic solution?
    more solute outside
  30. permeability across membrane depends on....
    size and polarity
  31. Are more polar molecules more or less permeable across membrane?
    less permeable
  32. Bacterial envelope (composition and function)
    protects membrane and everything inside

    made up of peptidoglycan
  33. most bacteria are hypertonic or hypotonic?
    hypertonic
  34. Gram + bacteria
    thick peptidoglycan layer
  35. Gram - bacteria
    thin peptidoglycan layer
  36. staining of gram + and - bacteria
    positive = purple

    negative = pink
  37. Is prokaryotic flagella the same as eukaryotic flagella?
    no
  38. prokaryotic flagella rotate
    counterclockwise
  39. Where does prokaryotic flagella get the energy to rotate?
    proton gradient, not ATP
  40. bacterial reproduction
    binary fission (2 identical daughter cells)
  41. What goes on in binary fission?
    DNA polymerase begins in circle

    move in on different ends and make complementary strand

    cell divides
  42. How can bacteria recombine genetic information?
    conjugation
  43. What is required in order for conjugation to occur
    plasmid must contain gene that codes for sex pilus
  44. What is the sex pilus?
    bridge that connects the 2 bacteria
  45. What codes for sex pilus?
    F factor
  46. R plasmid
    resistance to some antibiotics

    (gram negative)
  47. transformation
    naked transfer of DNA from env. (nonviral)
  48. transformation how?
    lysis of other bacteria

    or added in lab
  49. transduction
    viruses in lysogenic cycle release from bacteria A and infect bacteria B

    injecting bacteria A into bacteria B
  50. endospores in what kind of bacteria?
    • gram positive bacteria
    • ,
  51. What are endospores resistant to?
    heat, UV radiation, chemical disinfectants
  52. What are fungi? (cell type and energy source)
    eukaryotic heterotrophs
  53. What is the septa?
    cell wall
  54. Fungi is an exodigester. What does that mean?
    digests food outside the body
  55. What is yeast?
    A unicellular fungi

    (single-celled eukaryote)
  56. Is yeast an aerobe or anaerobe?
    facultative acaerobe

    more ATP with O2 but can survive without O2
  57. Yeast without oxygen produce what
    ethanol results from fermentation
  58. Yeast reproduction
    budding (asexual reproduction)
  59. Fungi reproduction (haploid or diploid)?
    haploid

    quicker under unfavorable conditions
  60. Can fungi reproduce sexually or asexually?
    both
  61. When sexually and when asexually?
    asexual = good conditions (identical offspring)

    sexual = tough conditions (diff. offspring)
  62. Eukaryotic nucleus
    contains all DNA (except some in mitochondria)
  63. RNA and DNA in nucleus
    RNA can leave through pores

    DNA cant
  64. Two kinds of endocytosis?
    phagocytosis

    pinocytosis
  65. phagocytosis v. pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis (eat)
    • pinocytosis (drink)
  66. What is phagocytosis?
    membrane reaches out and engulfs particle
  67. pinocytosis
    extra fluid engulfed by invagination of cell membrane
  68. What do lysosomes do?
    break down macromolecules
  69. lysosome pH
    5
  70. What happens to material not degraded by lysosome?
    its ejected
  71. smooth ER and lipids
    stores triglycerides
  72. what is the importance in storing triglycerides
    energy storage & body temperature regulation

    cholesterol formation

    synthesizes phospholipids
  73. smooth ER and toxins
    oxidizes foreign substances detoxifies drugs, pesticides, toxins
  74. What are peroxisomes?
    vesicles in cytosol

    produce and break down H2O2
  75. Which are larger, microtubules or microfilaments?
    microtubules
  76. examples of microtubules
    flagella and cilia
  77. example of microfilaments
    actin
  78. microtubules structure
    9 + 2 arrangement
  79. flagella v. cilia movement
    • flagella = wiggle
    • cilia = whip (lateral)
  80. Where do humans have cilia
    fallopian tubes and respiratory tract
  81. tight junctions - where? and what do they do there?
    epithelial tissue in bladder, intestines, and kidney

    prevent waste fluids from seeping out
  82. desmosome
    join cells at a single point

    attach to cytoskeleton (STRONG)
  83. desmosomes - where?
    tissues that experience much stress (skin, epithelial)
  84. gap junction
    small molecules and ions pass through
  85. Do eukaryotes or prokaryotes have centrioles?
    only eukaryotes
  86. does mitochondria have histones or nucleosomes?
    no -

    similar to prokaryotes
  87. What does disinfecting do?
    cleans off a surface of any pathogenic microbes -

    can kill some nonpathogenic microbes in the process
  88. bacteriophages integrate into host nucleus or mitochondria?
    neither -

    bacteria are prokaryotes and have neither nucleus or mitochondria

    infect cytoplasm

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