Pharmacology Exam 6

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Pharmacology Exam 6
2011-04-16 19:57:01

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  1. What is cancer?
    • excessive proliferation of cells
    • invasive growth
    • metastasis
  2. Intrinsic factors initiating cancer growth
    oncogenes and mutation in tumor suppressor genes
  3. Extrinsic factors initiating cancer growth
    • reactive to oxygen/nitrogen in environment (pollution)
    • food/drink habbits
    • smoking
    • stress
  4. Types of chemotherapy
    • cytotoxic agents
    • hormones
    • biological response modifiers
  5. Obstacles to successful chemotherapy
    • toxicity
    • cure requires 100% kill
    • failure of early detection
    • tumor characteristics
    • drug resistance
    • drug interactions
  6. Strategies for achieving max benefit of chemotherapy
    • intermittent treatment
    • combo therapy
    • optimization of dosing schedules
    • regional drug delivery
  7. Major toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents
    • bone marrow suppression
    • gi tract injury
    • n/v
    • alopecia
    • teratogenicity
    • infertility
    • secondary carcinogenesis
  8. which of the following is not the major characteristic of cancer?
    A. excessive proliferation
    B. Metastasis
    C. Invasive growth
    D. Altered Immune response
    D. Altered immune response
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Biochemical causes of resistance to anticancer agents
    • tumor inability to activate prodrug
    • multidrug resistance
  10. Pharmacologic causes of resistance to anticancer drugs
    • poor or erratic absorption
    • increase excretion or catabolism
    • poor transport to tumor cells
  11. Drug interactions
    • Chemo + Chemo
    • Chemo + Chemo-related (ajunct therapy)
    • Chemo + Other (digoxin or warfarin)
  12. If the chemotherapy agent is a prodrug activated by CYP3A4
    • NNRTIs increase activation of the chemotherapeutic agent
    • PIs decrease activation of the chemotherapeutic agent
  13. If a chemotherapeutic agent is metabolized by CYP3A4
    • NNRTI will increase metabolism
    • PI will decrease metabolism
  14. Citrus flavanoids
    decrease action of tamoxifen
  15. Vitamin A and E
    enhance action of tamoxifen
  16. Ginseng
    enhance estrogen levels and interfere with tamoxifen
  17. st. john wart
    activates CYP3A4 leading to increased metabolism of chemo drugs
  18. grape fruit juice
    inhibits CYP3A4 leading to accumulation of drugs and decreased activation of prodrugs
  19. M phase
    • cell differentiation
    • alkaloids work here
  20. G1 Phase
    • synthesis of cellular components needed for DNA synthesis
    • Antimetabolites and antibiotics act here
  21. S phase
    • DNA synthesis
    • some antimetabolites and antibiotics work here
  22. G2 phase
    • synthesis of cellular components for mitosis
    • antibiotics work here
  23. Non-Cell-Cycle specific agents
    • alkylating agents
    • cisplatin