The Primary Motor cortex (in the frontal lobe) congtrols what?
controls voluntary movement
The Premotor cortex (in the frontal lobe) contols what?
responsible for the coordinated movement of multiple muscles
The SOmatic association cortex controls what?
responsible for judgment, prioritizing, choosing wisely, personality, executive functions, motor speech in left frontal lobe
The PFC is responsible for:
he prefrontal cortex (PFC), is connected to all other brain regions to execute goal-directed activity.
When circuitry in the PFC is impaired by a mental disorder, such as schizophrenia, there is a decrease in executive function, attention, impulse control, socialization, regulation of drives (e.g., sex), and emotions.
Which lobe contains the the primary sensory area for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature, and also involved in attention, spatial orientation, and language development?
Sensory and Motor
This Lobe contains the primary visual cortex and is mainly responsible for visual reception. It also contains association areas that help in the recognition of shapes and colors.
Which lobe is responsible for language comprehension, stores sounds as memories, and connects with the lymbic system to allow expression of emotion
*contains Wernicke's area
What is the purpose of the hippocampus?
interacts with the prefrontal areas in recent memory and learning.
**located deep in the temporal lobe
**This is damaged during alzheimers
In schitzophrenia how is the hipposcampus affected?
in unipolar or biploar depression?
2 conditions that will damage the hippocampus?
The hippocampus fails to develop adequately in schizophrenia
It atrophies in recurrent unipolar or bipolar depression and in severe stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
It also is damaged by the toxicity of alcohol addiction or Alzheimer's dementia
What is the amygdala responsible for?
plays a major role in memory and in processing fear and anxiety.
The amygdala also sends signals that are reward related as occurs with the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including alcohol
anger, aggression love, joy, hope, sexual arousal, social behavior, comfort in social situations, sense of smell
What structures does the Limbic System (emotional Brain) contain?
What is the basal ganglia?
Collection of nerve fibers that is responsible for the smooth integration of emotions, thoughts, and physical movement (both voluntary and involuntary
What are the 4 Fs of motivation associated with the Limbic system
What is thought to be central behind the pathophysiology of schizophrenia
Abnormalities of the thalamus and changes in the gray matter bridge connecting the two thalamic lobes are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia
The Thalamus is the
sensory relay to the cortex
prevents the cortex prom becoming overloaded
All sensory information except smell
hypothalamus (located deep in the brain) is responsible for
maintaining homeostasis. It regulates temperature, blood pressure, perspiration, sexual drive, hunger, thirst, and circadian rhythms, such as sleep and wakefulness
What are thyroid hormones sometimes used to treat
people with depression or rapid cycling bipolar I disorder.
They are also used as replacement therapy for people who developed a hypothyroid state from lithium treatment
What is the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS? Which is more responsive to sympathomimic (amphetamines) drugs and withdrawl from depresives (benzodiazapines)?
The sympathetic system usually increases heart rate, respirations, and blood pressure to prepare for fight or flight, whereas the parasympathetic system slows the heart rate and begins the process of digestion.
the sympathetic system
What is the Target for the mechanism of action in many psychotropic medications
What are some key neurotransmittors?
Dopamine, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, GABA, Acetylcholine, Histamine (amino acid sometimes referred to as a NT)
The monoamine Dopamine is responsible for what?
increases blood flow to the liver, spleen, kidneys, and other visceral organs; and controls muscle movements and motor coordination.
emotion, voluntary decision-making
Abnormally low levels of dopamine are associated
with tremors, muscle rigidity, and low blood pressure
What is the relationship between drugs that block or stimulate dopamine receptors and schitzophrenia?
drugs that block dopamine receptors (e.g., haloperidol) have antipsychotic activity and drugs that stimulate dopamine activity (e.g., amphetamines) can induce psychotic symptoms
What are the 2 kinds of disturbances that occur from antipsychotic drugs that block/antagonize dopamine receptors
acute extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which develop early in treatment
tardive dyskinesia, which occurs much later
What are extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)?
Dystonia: prolonged and unintentional muscular contractions of voluntary or involuntary muscles
Parkinsonism: characterized by the triad of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia
Akathisia: characterized by a patient's subjective sense of restlessness, along with such objective evidence of restlessness as pacing or rocking.
EPS occur most frequently with standard antipsychotic drugs, high doses of the atypical agent _______ also may cause EPS and an uncomfortable feeling called dysphoria
Dopamine is balanced by the neurotransmitter
Aceytlcholine is thought to be involved in
cognative functions, especially memory
coordination of movement (voluntary muscles)
Acetylcholine is deficient in what diseases?
An increase in acetylcholine results in what?
An increase in NE w/i the limbic system is associated with ____ where as a decrease in NE is associated with______ because this monoamine helps regulate mood
Mania or anxiety
Blockage of the alpha one receptors for NE can bring about....?
can bring about vasodilation and a consequent drop in blood pressure or orthostatic hypotension.
also failure to ejaculate
Serotonin helps regulate
attention, behavior, and body temperature.
Drugs that block the enzyme that metabolizes monoamines are called ______________ and may, on occasion, be used to increase serotonin and norepinephrine in intractable depression.
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
***selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are more commonly used antidepressants.
What is serotonin syndrome and what is the tx?
Symptoms of high levels of serotonin range from restlessness to muscle rigidity and seizures. These symptoms can be alleviated by muscle relaxants and drugs that block serotonin production
What are the functions of GABA?
slow down of body activity (inhibits firing of neurons). Brain’s principle inhibitory neurotransmitter
Activity of GABA is increased by what 2 meds?
Histamine is involved in
stimulation of gastric secretions
An elevation in histamine levels can result in what? a decrease can cause what?
Elevated can cause anxiety, drop Bp, increase gastric acid
Decrease can cause weight gain, sedation, depression, dry mouth
A decrease in GABA =
An increase in dopamine =
A decrease in Histamine=
An increase in Histamine =
What test shows anatomical (or structural) imaging?
CT -visualizes shape, size, defects of parts of brain in schizophrenia, alcoholism, multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimers
** MRI have better visualization than CTs
*no metal objects in MRI
What test is most useful in detecting CVA?
SPECT- – single photon emission tomography also measures activity of brain