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  1. What percent of fluids in humans are Intracellular fluid?
  2. What perecent of ECF is interstitial fluid?
  3. What are the 3 sources of water intake?
    Food (700 ml), Drinks (1600 ml) and Metabolic water (200 ml)
  4. What is metabolic water?
    produced by doy from aerobic cellular respiration/ dehyration synthesis reactions
  5. What are the 4 ways we lose water?
    • GI (100 ml)
    • lungs (300ml)
    • skin (600 ml)
    • kidneys (1500 ml)
  6. Where in in the brain is the thirst center?
  7. What are the 3 most hormones that regulate renal Na+/ Cl- loss?
    Angiotensin II, aldosterone, ANP
  8. Which is the only hormone that increases water loss in urine?
  9. Name 1 mechanism causing water loss from these systems
    1) systemic
    2) GI
    3) Skin
    4) respiratory
    • 1) fever
    • 2) vomiting/ diarrhea
    • 3) burns
    • 4) Hyperventilation
  10. Which hormone promotes reabsorption of Na+ and Cl-, and which one promotes excretion?
    • Reabsorption: Aldosterone
    • Excretion: ANP
  11. What do oral rehydration therapy need to add some NaCl?
    Otherwise, low Na+ = hyponatremia --> low osmolarity of interstitial fluid/plasma--> water into cells, swelling = convulsions, coma, death
  12. Name the most abundance extracellular cation and anion
    Na+ and Cl-
  13. Name the most abundance intracellular cation and anion
    K+ and HPO4-2 (and proteins)
  14. What's the normal plasma conc of Cl-?
    98-107 mEq/L
  15. Which hormone controls plasma K+ concentration?
  16. What is the 2nd most prevalent extracellular anion?
    Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
  17. What is normal bicarb plasma concentration?
    22-26 mEq/L
  18. What 3 ways do PTH increase serum Ca?
    • 1) bone: stimulate osteoclasts
    • 2) kidney: reasbosrb Ca+2
    • 3) gut: increased calcitriol = increased absorption
  19. What does PTH do to PO4 in
    1) the bone
    2) the kidney
    3) the gut
    • 1) bone: increase by stimulating osteoclasts
    • 2) kidney: decrease by inhibiting reabsorption
    • 3) gut: increase by increased absorption
  20. What is the top 2 intracellular cations?
    1) K+ and Mg++
  21. What is normal serum level of Mg?
    1.3-2.1 mEq/L
  22. What percentage of an infant's water (<2 yo) is ECF?
    2/3-opposite of adults, so rapid losses more serious
  23. What is percent of normal saline?
Card Set:

electrolyte balance
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