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2011-05-05 00:33:20
lab review

lab review pt 1
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  1. Where are autosomal characteristics carried?
    Where are sex-linked traits carried?
    • sex-linked traits are on the x- chromosomes.
    • autosomal- chromosomes.
  2. If an individual is homozygous dominant or
    heterozygous, what characteristic will be shown in the phenotype? If an individual is homozygous recessive,
    what trait will show in the phenotype?
    • homozygous / heteroqygous dominant will show the dominat trait.
    • homozygous recessive well show the recessive trait.
  3. You would expect the dominant trait to be most common in a population. Is this always true? Why?
  4. If you are given information about which trait
    is dominant and which is recessive, you should be able to determine which genotypes correspond with different phenotypes. You should also be able to make some predictions regarding the probable genotypes of parents or offspring of given individuals.
  5. True or False:
    sex chromosomes carry only genes that relate to the sexual characteristics or
    functions of an individual. Explain and
    give an example.
  6. How are X-linked traits inherited differently in
    males and females?
    • Females can only be carriers.
    • males have a 50/50 shot of getting it.
  7. Know what the symbols used in
    constructing a pedigree mean. Does a
    pedigree indicate genotypes or phenotypes?
    Be able to study a pedigree and predict how a trait is inherited (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, sex-linked). Be able to predict the genotype of a chosen individual of a pedigree.
  8. What chromosome abnormality is associated with
    Down syndrome? Be able to recognize a
    Down syndrome karyotype.
    three set in the 21 chormosome. ( trisomy )
  9. How can you tell the sex of an individual in a normal karyotype?
    • XX is female
    • XY is male.

    you look at set 23 chromosome.
  10. What are the chromosome abnormalities that are
    associated with Turner syndrome, Triplo-X, Klinefelter syndrome, and Jacob syndrome? Be able to recognize these karyotypes.
    • aneupluid - an extra or missing chromosome.
    • Turners - XO
    • Triplo- X- XXX
    • Klinefelter - XXY
    • Jacob- XYY
  11. Define replication, transcription, translation, transformation, and gel electrophoresis.
    • Transcription- DNA to RNA
    • Translation- RNA to Protein
    • Transformation- tendency for bacteria to take in foreign DNA and make it a part of their own DNA.
    • Gel electrophoesis- separates molecules on the basis of their charge and size.
  12. What are the 3 parts that make up a nucleotide
    of DNA? In DNA, which parts make up the
    ladder sides and which part make up the ladder rungs?
  13. Given a sequence of DNA bases on one strand, be able to predict the base sequence on the new strand.
  14. List differences in structure and composition
    between DNA and RNA.
    • DNA- dexoyribose and phosphate ( A T C G)
    • RNA- ribosome and pshospate ( A U C G)
  15. What is a codon?
    What is its function?
    What organelle is associated with translation
    • Every three bases in mRNA is called a codon.
    • it represent an amino acid?
    • ribosome- cytoplasm.
  16. Given a DNA code, be able to transcribe it to
  17. What two “components” necessary for the process of translation are carried by tRNA? What is an anticodon? If given a sequence of mRNA codons, be able to predict the sequence of tRNA anticodons.
    • mRNA and Ribosome.
    • anticodons are address checkers to the codons.
  18. If given a template strand of DNA, be able to
    predict the amino acid sequence that could be produced from it.
    DNA- RNA- Proteins.
  19. What are plasmids? How are they used in recombinant DNA technology? What does recombinant DNA
    mean? What human hormone has been produced by recombinant DNA technology?
    • Plasmids: A genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.
    • Recombinant DNA: contains DNA from multiple cources joined together; contain the gene of interest and a sorting gene. human growth hormones? ex : insulin
  20. During the transformation procedure, what gene(s) did the plasmid contain? How would this be beneficial to E. coli? How did we know if the E. coli had been transformed?
    • gene interest : pglo
    • sorting gene: amp.

    amp allows them to grow.

    lives: transform
  21. What is gel electrophoresis used for? Upon what basis does it separate molecules? In gel electrophoresis, what makes molecules migrate?
    used to for separating molecules on the basis of their charge and size. they are placed in a electrical field...attracts the opposite charge.

    use for a bunch of disease.
  22. If given a protein’s isoelectric point and the pH of the buffer, be able to determine if the protein will be positive or negative. Be able to determine the distance it will travel relative to other proteins.
    know the chart...