510 Chapter 10

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510 Chapter 10
2011-04-17 01:08:32
Theories Design Counseling

Study guide for final
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  1. What theory is the basis of behavioral therapy?
    Learning theory
  2. What is the etiological conceptualization associated with behavioral therapy?
    All behaviors are learned through reward and punishment.
  3. What would Skinner say about the use of Time Out when controlling child behavior?
    That it is as important to control what precedes a behavior as what follows it.
  4. Looking to other people as guides for behavior is recognized by behaviorists as _______.
  5. Who is an early investigator of classical conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov
  6. Who is considered the father of behaviorism?
    John B. Watson
  7. What process links stimuli with learned responses?
    classical conditioning
  8. What American theorist proposed that psychologists could discover what stimuli predict what responses in individuals?
    John B. Watson
  9. In Pavlov's experimentation, a bell became associated with feeding and eventually called for salivation in dogs, but when the bell kept ringing with no presentation of food, it stopped calling forth salivation. This later process is known as _______.
  10. Operant conditioning is a process in which behavior is changed by _________.
    what comes after it
  11. Who conceptualized the process called operant conditioning?
    Edward Thorndike
  12. How did Skinner modify Thorndike's law of effect?
    He avoided referring to inner states like "satisfying" because they are not observable.
  13. What concept did B.F. Skinner's theory contribute to learning theory?
    the schedule of reinforcement
  14. The key concept of reinforcement theory is _______, which means that a reinforcement must occur after a certain, identifiable response, not just any response.
  15. Dollard and Miller extended psychoanalytic theory by investigating neuroses as products of _________.
  16. _________ is the process in which the cue-response relation is reversed.
  17. Who wrote Walden Two?
    B. F. Skinner
  18. Behaviorists view the interplay of behavior and personality in which of the following ways?
    Behavior explains one's personality.
  19. What is meant by the behavioral term generalization?
    We are classically conditioned to respond not only to exact stimuli but also to stimuli that remind us in some way of the original ones.
  20. _________ is a dismal pattern of inaction developed through repeated past experiences in which pain was inescapable.
    Learned helplessness
  21. What is meant by the behavioral term reciprocal inhibition?
    A treatment that pairs threatening cues with relaxation or assertiveness in order to overcome the anxiety.
  22. According to Wolpe, what is the causal agent in all neurotic reactions?
  23. What is meant by the behavioral term avoidance repression?
    Avoiding situations that are similar to historical experiences that were painful.
  24. Who conceptualized social learning theory based on behavioral concepts?
    Albert Bandura
  25. Which of the following adjectives best describes the style of behavioral therapy?
  26. What two characteristics of behavior therapy make it appealing to multicultural applications?
    focus on behavior and involvement of natural helpers
  27. What is the relationship between behavioral psychology and science?
    By its very nature, behavioral therapy takes a scientific approach with results evaluated frequently.
  28. The scientific advantages of behavior therapy have led to the ______ of many behavioral treatments, essentially providing a step-by-step written protocol for therapists and clients to follow.
  29. What is the course of behavioral therapy?
    The course of behavioral therapy follows identifiable stages. Sometimes the process loops back to earlier stages as it develops.
  30. What is the attitude of behavioral counselors toward client input in the planning stages?
    Client input is crucial because people will not follow plans that they feel were forced upon them.
  31. What is the role of the counselor in behavioral therapy?
    The counselor acts as a collaborator in identifying goals and planning treatments.
  32. According to Prochaska and Norcross, most behavior problems fall into three categories, excess, deficit, and ________.
  33. A client comes to a behavior therapist with the complaint that she is feeling depressed. In the assessment process, the therapist's initial goal is to determine
    what behaviors are attached to the complaint
  34. What is the technique used by behavioral counselors called imaginative re-run?
    The client remembers a specific episode and tries to relive it, describing events and feelings.
  35. What is the behavioral therapy technique called observation?
    The counselor goes to the client's environment while the client experiences the difficulty that they are trying to solve.
  36. What is a baseline in behavioral counseling?
    A set of records of the problem behavior collected before therapy that are compared to future records to measure the client's progress.
  37. What is the technique used by behavioral counselors called inventories?
    The client completes standardized forms such as questionnaires and checklists. These are constructed to discover more about problem behaviors.
  38. In behavioral therapy, what is meant by the phenomenon called the reactivity of measurement?
    It means that keeping track of a behavior often results in altered behavior.
  39. From a behavioral perspective, what is wrong with a parent telling a child she can have dessert only if she eats her broccoli?
    It will make dessert more desirable to the child while devaluing broccoloi.
  40. Immediate rewards are called ________, and later rewards are called ________.
    proximal; distal
  41. When a client or child engages in a short-term increase of an undesirable behavior because of lack of reinforcement, it is called a
    response burst
  42. Transfer of training occurs in behavioral therapy when
    success with one of a client's problems spreads out to untargeted areas.
  43. Once the goal, reinforcers, and targeted behavior have been identified, how does a behavioral counselor select a plan of action?
    The counselor and client decide on a plan of action together.
  44. What do behaviorists suggest regarding adjustments in reward systems?
    Rewards need adjusting when they are not working well.
  45. Why is termination in behavior therapy different from most other terminations of treatment?
    It is easier for the therapist and client to agree on when it is time to terminate therapy, because the behavioral goal has been clearly defined.
  46. How do behavioral therapists view a client's failure to maintain the improvements achieved in therapy?
    They see the failure as temporary and resolvable by re-immersion in the behavioral learning process.
  47. In behavioral therapy, stimulus control is a type of contingency management in which
    the counselor and client analyze and manipulate contingencies preceding a behavior.
  48. In behavioral therapy, what is biofeedback?
    Through messages given by measuring devices such as blood pressure cuffs, people can learn to condition the responses of their nervous systems.
  49. In behavioral therapy, shaping is a type of contingency management in which
    the desired behavior doesn't occur naturally, so behaviors that are close to the desired behavior are rewarded.
  50. What is it called when reward is given for a series of behaviors that come closer and closer to the desired goal?
    successive approximations
  51. In behavioral therapy, differential reinforcement us a type if contingency management in which
    rewards are given when a client is not performing an undesirable behavior.
  52. What type of reinforcement is generally used in behavior modification classrooms that reward good behavior with points?
    token reinforcement
  53. What is the greatest advantage of a token economy?
    It bridges the delay between the behavior and the reward.
  54. What recommendation did Bandura make about making punishment useful?
    Combining negative consequences with a reasoned explanation of why the behavior is unacceptable produces more future self-restraint than punishment alone.
  55. __________ therapy is based on the idea of counter-conditioning in which a good experience is turned into a bad one.
  56. In behavioral therapy, what is response cost?
    A term associated with aversion therapy where an undesirable behavior results automatically in an aversive experience.
  57. In behavioral therapy, what is the fear reduction method called systematic desensitization?
    Reduction of emotional reactions by exposure to the feared stimuli in an organized way - from least frightening to most frightening aspect of the situation.
  58. Who developed the concept of systematic desensitization?
    Joseph Wolpe
  59. When using systematic desensitization, how does a counselor prepare the client for the process?
    The counselor helps the client learn progressive relaxation techniques and the client draws up a list of anxiety causing events from most to least anxiety provoking.
  60. What is in vivo desensitization?
    The intervention actually happens in the client's life; in imaginal intervention the client imagines the situation in the counselor's office.
  61. Which of the following would be part of an in vivo desensitization intervention used to treat a client's fear of flying?
    Having the client sit in an airplane that is parked inside a hanger for maintenance.
  62. In behavioral terms, what is flooding?
    Reduction of emotional reactions by prolonged or repeated exposure to a fearful situation with no actual aversive consequences.
  63. In a case of snake phobia discussed in the textbook, a therapist narrates a snake attack with clearly phallic imagery, closing with the client tearing the snake apart bare-handed and eating it in raw chunks, only to have it reproduce in her stomach and gnaw her from within. What technique is this therapist using?
  64. ________ is especially effective for helping clients learn the social skills necessary to untangle themselves from over-dependent and exploitive relationships.
    Assertiveness training
  65. What is the behavioral therapy technique of modeling?
    It reduces emotional reactions to situations by showing the client another person successfully confronting similar situations.
  66. In the behavioral counseling context, what is participant modeling?
    Clients with lower levels of anxiety can act as models for more anxious clients.
  67. In the behavioral counseling context, what is covert modeling?
    The model exists in the client's imagination and is called upon when the client chooses how to behave.
  68. In the behavioral counseling context, what is self-management?
    A person who apples behavioral strategies without supervision is engaged in self-management.
  69. ________ are often used in attempts to prevent suicide.
    Behavioral contracts
  70. Which of the following is NOT identified in the text as a role for group members in a behavior therapy group?
    Helping to determine the structure and membership of the group.