(1887–1975) Chinese general and politician; he succeeded Sun Yixian as leader of the Nationalist Party in China and led attacks against Communists in China in the 1920s.
(1893–1976) Leader of the Chinese Communists; he led a successful revolution and established a Communist government in China in 1949
(1934) the 6,000-mile journey made by Communist Chinese to escape Nationalist troops
(1919) an event in which British troops fired on a large crowd of peaceful, unarmed Indian protestors, killing some 400 people; it led to a campaign of protest led by Gandhi
(1869–1948) Leader of India’s struggle for independence from Great Britain; he organized the population for protest through the methods of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience
(1881–1938) Turkish leader and founder of modern Turkey; he sought to transform Turkey into a modern, secular state with separation between religion (Islam) and government
an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time
October 29, 1929, the day that the United States stock market crashed
(1929–1930s) a severe worldwide depression that followed the collapse of the United States stock market; prices and wages fell, business activity slowed, and unemployment rose
(1882–1945) Thirty-second president of the United States; he was elected president four times. He led the United States during the major crises of the Great Depression and World War II.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's plan of economic relief, recovery, and reforms for the country during the Great Depression
(1883–1946) British economist; his revolutionary economic theory, which stated that governments could prevent economic downturns by deﬁ cit spending, provided the basis for some of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies
John Maynard Keynes
(1930) a U.S. law that set extremely high tariffs on imports in an effort to protect American farmers and manufacturers; the result was a worsening of the Great Depression
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
wealth or success
(1931) using an explosion on a Japanese-controlled Southern Manchurian railroad as an excuse, Japanese military forces conquered Manchuria and set up a puppet government
Japanese puppet state (1932-1945) formed in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia
(1936) agreement signed between Germany and Japan in which they established their opposition to the Comintern, a Soviet-sponsored international organization aimed at spreading communism
(1937) the murder of as many as 300,000 Chinese men, women, and children by Japanese troops
later; following in time
Italian Fascist leader; he ruled as Italy’s dictator for more than 20 years beginning in 1922. His alliance with Hitler brought Italy into World War II
a totalitarian system of government that focuses on the good of the state rather than on the good of the individual citizens
form of government in which the person or party in charge has absolute control over all aspects of life
(1879–1953) Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he led the Soviet Union through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of inﬂ uence in Eastern Europe after the war.
a Soviet forced labor camp or prison, used especially for political dissidents
(1889–1945) Totalitarian dictator of Germany; his invasion of European countries led to World War II. He espoused notions of racial superiority and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust.
National Socialist Party; fascist political party of Adolf Hitler governed on totalitarian lines and advocating German racial superiority
hostility or prejudice towards Jews
Nazi laws that eliminated citizenship and many civil and property rights for Jews
(1938) "night of broken glass"; an event that occurred on the nights of November 9 and 10 in which Hitler's Nazis encouraged Germans to riot against Jews; nearly 100 Jews died