Management Test

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Management Test
2011-04-17 17:02:22
Management Test

Management Test
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  1. the process of determining, through observation and study, the relevant information relating to the nature of a specific job. Need to do this to select the right people.
    Job Analysis
  2. identify tasks, duties, response, and performance expectations
    Job Description
  3. knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics a person needs to bee successful on a job
    job specification
  4. Part 1 of a Job Analysis - contains basic information about each employee including (skills, qualifications, salary and job history, company data, capacity of individual, special preferences) Want to have the right people in the right position in the right time
    Question: Where are we now?
    Skills Inventory
  5. Part 2 of a Job Anaylsis - Question: Where do we want to go? Attempts to determine future HR needs
  6. Part 3 of a Job Analysis - Final Phase, Transitional activities, current trend(downsizing)
  7. prohibits wage discrimination on the basis of sex - all else equal - women must make the same as men
    Equal Pay Act of 1963
  8. eliminate employment discrimination related to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in organizations that conduct intersate commerce.
    Title VII of the Civil Rights act of 1964
  9. the right of all people to work and to advance on the bases of merit, abilit, and potential.
    equal employement opportunity
  10. protects people between 40 and 70 - no mandatory retirement at age 65
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act
  11. prohibits discrimination in hiring of individuals with disabilities by federal agencies and federal contractors.
    Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  12. gives indiviuals with disabilities sharply increased access to services and jobs. - protects people with disabilities - organizations must accomodate people with disabilities as long as it doesnt make a hardship
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990
  13. permits women, minorities, persons with disabilities, and persons who are religious minorities to have a jury trial and sue for punitive damages of up to 300K if they can prove they are victims of intentional hiring or workplace discrimination
    Civil Rights Act 1991
  14. Enables qualified employees to take prolonged unpaid leave for family and health related reasons without fear of losing their jobs
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
  15. providing preferential treatment for one group(minority) over another group(majority) rather than merely providing equal opportunity.
    Reverse Discrimination
  16. provide a sample of behavior that is used to draw inferences about the future behavior or performance of an individual
  17. measure a person's capacity or potential ability to learn - IQ test
    Aptitude Test
  18. measure the job related knowledge possessed by a job applicant
    job knowledge test
  19. measure how well the applicant can do a sample of work to be performed
    proficiency test
  20. designed to determine how a person's interests compare with the interests of successful people in a specific job
    interest test
  21. measure a person's strength, dexterity, and coordination - must be necessary for the job
    psychomotor test
  22. attempt to measure personality characteristics
    psychological tests
  23. lie detector - record physical changes in the body as the test subject answers a series of questions
    polygraph tests
  24. extent to which a test predicts a specific criterion
    test validity
  25. consistency or reproducibility of the results of a test
    test reliability
  26. most valid type of interview - conducted using a prederemined outline
    structured interview
  27. a variation of the structured interview - the interviewer prepares the major questions in advance but has the flexibility to use such techniques as probing to help assess the applicant's strengths and weaknesses
    semi-structured interviews
  28. a variation of the structured interview - uses projective techniques to put the prospective employee in action situations that might be encountered on the job
    situational interview
  29. a variation of the structured interview - what did you do in your past that shows how you would do it in the future - or show that you might have learned from mistakes
    Past Behavior Description Interview
  30. interviews conducted without a predetermined checklist of questions - least Valid
    unstrictured interview
  31. 3 interviewing techniques
    • 1. Stress - put interviewee under pressure
    • 2. Panel - two or more interviewers - reliability
    • 3. Group - questions several interviewees teogether in a group discussion
  32. 5 suggestions for conducting effective interviews
    • 1. proper selection and trainin of interviewers
    • 2. specific outline
    • 3. put the applicant at ease
    • 4. record the facts
    • 5. evaluation of interview effectiveness
  33. the degree of attraction among group memebers or how tightly knit a group is
    group cohesiveness
  34. factors that affect the cohesiveness of informal work groups (7)
    size, success, status, outside pressures, stability of membership, communication, physical isolation
  35. 4 phases of team development
    forming, storming, norming, and performing
  36. a phase of team development - 1. occurs when the team members first come together
  37. a phase of team development - 2. involves a period of disagreement and intense discussion as members attempt to impose their individual viewpoints on the rest of the group
  38. a phase of team development - 3. the team develops the informal rules that enable it to regulate the behavior of the team members
  39. a phase of team development - 4. the team becomes an effective and high performing team only if it has gone through the 3 pervious stages
  40. People can keep job and work at 20-30% capacity - a hightly motivated person can work at 80-90% capacity - the importance of motivation
    William James
  41. based on the assumption that individuals are motivated to satisfy a number of needs and that money can directly or indirectly satisfy only some of these needs
    hierarchy of needs
  42. hierarchy of needs from top to bottom are (5)
    • 1. Self Actualization
    • 2. Esteem or ego
    • 3. Social
    • 4. Safety
    • 5. Phsysiological
  43. Frederick Herzberg - 1st factor - aspects that are better than others ( make us feel good)-achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and job characteristics Second factors - negative (work environment) - interpersonal relations
    motivation-hygiene approach
  44. giving an employee more of a similar type of operation to perform
    job enlargement
  45. the practice of periodically roatiting job assignments within the organization
    job rotation
  46. upgrading the job by adding motivator factors
    job enrichment
  47. developed by Victor Vroom - employee beliefs about the relationship among effort, performance, and outcomes as a reslut of performance and the value of employees place on the outcomes determine their level of motivation
    expectancy approach
  48. employees belief that his or her effort will lead to the desired level of performance
  49. emplyees belief that attaining the desired level of performance will lead to the desired rewards
  50. employees belief about the value of rewards
  51. B.F. Skinner - if reward or punish it motivates 4 types: positivie, avoidance, extinction, punishment
    Reinforcement Approach
  52. providing a positive consequence as a relut of desirable behavior
    positive reinforcement
  53. giving a person the opportunity to avoid a negative consequence by exhibiting a desirable behavior ( aka negative reinfrcement)
  54. employees recieve positive reinforcement that encourages negative action - cut throat environment - providing no positive consequences or removing perviously provided positive consequences as a result of undesirable behavior
  55. providing a negative consequence as a result of undesireable behavior
  56. belief that satisfied employees = good performance
    research rejects this popular view
    satisfaction and motvation are not identical
    recruiting satisfied employees is successful
    the satisfaction- performance controversy
  57. Why practice Management Control???? Alert managers to potential critical problems
    Five actions for managers:
    • 1. Prevent Crisis
    • 2. Standardize Outputs
    • 3. Appraise Employee performance
    • 4. Update plans
    • 5. Protect the organization's assets
  58. methods, sometimes called steering controls, attempt to prevent a problem from occurring - process or means to output is just as important as the output
    preliminary control
  59. also called screening controls, focus on things that happen as inputs are being transformed into outputs
    concurrent controls
  60. methods are designed to detect existing problems after they occur but before they reach crisis proportions- most controals are like this
    post action controls
  61. statement of expected results or requirements expressed in financial or numerical terms
  62. most widely used type of control - dangers are inflixibility, inefficiencies, "padded"(buy things you don't need to get higher budget for next year)
    budgetary control
  63. answer to budgetary control issues - requires each manager to justify an entire budget request in detail, ingorder items
    zero based budget
  64. method requires the manager to keep a written record of incidents, as they occur, involving job behaviors that illustrate both stisfactory and unsatisfactory performance of the employee being rated.
    critical incident appraisal
  65. a ranking method where you simply rank employees
    alteration ranking
  66. a ranking method where you compare each person to every other person in a group
    paired comparison ranking
  67. a ranking method - bell curve
    forced distribution
  68. a ranking method where everyone rates everyone - potential for sabatoge
    multirater assessment
  69. a potential error in performance appraisials - grouping of ratings at the positive end of the scale instead of spreading them throught the scale
  70. a potential error in performance appraisials - occcurs when performance appraisal statistics indicate that most employees are evaluated similaly as doing average or above average work
    central tendancy
  71. a potential error in performance appraisials occurs when perfornace evaluations are based on work performed most recently, generally work performed one to two months before evaluation
  72. a potential error in performance appraisials - a positive or negative characteristic and generalize
    halo/ horn effect
  73. a potential error in performance appraisials - 3 other things that can cause errorss
    • Personal Preference
    • prejudices
    • biases
  74. relative term that means different things to different people
  75. 4 most important areas for quality
    • 1. loss of buisness
    • 2. liability
    • 3. costs
    • 4. productivity
  76. pioneered in Japan, schedules materials to arrive and leave as they are needed
    Just in time inventory control (JIT)
  77. integrating different cultures and backgrounds
  78. reasons for creating diverse workforce (4)
    • employee population is increasingly diverse
    • customer population is increasingly diverse
    • retaining top talent means recruiting individuals from all backgrounds
    • increasing diversity minimizes the risk of litigation
  79. the ability to produce more of a good than another producer with the same quantity of inputs
    absolute advantage
  80. producers should produce goods they are most efficient at producing and purchase from others the goods they are less efficient at producing
    law of comparative advantage
  81. goods and services that are sold abroad
  82. goods and services purchased abroad
  83. difference between the value of the good a country exports and the value of the goods it imports
    balance of trade
  84. export more than import (China)
    trade Surplus
  85. import more than export(U.S.) although we are the largest importer and exporter
    trade deficit
  86. government imposed taxes charged on goods imported into a country
  87. restrictions on the quantity of a good that can enter a country
  88. a total ban on the import of a good from a particular country
  89. a region within which trade restictions are reduced or eliminated
    free trade area
  90. Lewins Three Step Model for Change
    • 1. Unfreezing - new technological change- institute it
    • 2. New Alternative - present and sell
    • 3. Refreezing - reward for using
  91. Six reasons for resisting change
    • 1. fear of unkown
    • 2. economics
    • 3. fear of skills loosing value
    • 4. threats to power
    • 5. additional work
    • 6. threats to interpersonal relations
  92. an organization that is committed to creating, aquiring, and transforming knowledge
    the learning organization
  93. Three broad areas that are expected to affect management in the 21st century
    • 1. Technological growth
    • 2. Virtual Management
    • 3. Ethical and Social responsibilities
  94. increases productivity, decreases costs, ability to hire best talent regardless of location, quickly solve problems with dynamic teams, more easily leverage both static and dynamic staff, improves the work environment, better balance of personal and professional lives, provides competitive advantage
    benefits of virtual management
  95. leaders must move to a trust method, new forms of communication and collaboration required, management must enable learning culture, staff re-education may be required, it can be difficult to monitor employee behavior
    challenges of virtual management
  96. a set of moral principles or values that govern behavior
  97. occurs when an individual takes a backward looking or relective perspective to determine whether the ethical situation at hand is related to a similar case and or the rules governing it
    rule based style ( formalism)
  98. occurs when an individual takes a forward looking perspective and compares the perceieved choice alternatives and their consequences on key judging criteria
    cost/benefit style (utilitarianism)
  99. Three distict schools of thought for social responsibility
    • profit maximization
    • trusteeship management
    • social involvement
  100. makes it illegal for companies to monopolize trade
    the sherman act
  101. makes it illegal to charge different prices to different wholesale customers
    Clayton act
  102. bans unfair or deceptive acts or practices indluding false advertising
    wheeler-lea act
  103. refers to the ownership of ideas, such as inventions, books, movies, and computer programs
    Intellectual Property
  104. the obligation that individuals or businesses have to help solve social problems
    social responsibility