AP Psychology

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AP Psychology
2011-04-17 19:47:17

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  1. hindsight bias
    the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have forseen it
  2. critical thinking
    • -thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
    • -it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
  3. theory
    an explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
  4. hypothesis
    a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
  5. operational definition
    • -a statement of procedures used to define research variables
    • Ex. human intelligence-ehat an intelligence test measures
  6. replication
    repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other [articipants and circumstances
  7. case study
    an observation technique in which one person is started in depth in the hope of revealing universal priniciples
  8. survey
    a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
  9. population
    all cases in a group being studied, from which smaples may be drawn
  10. random sample
    a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
  11. naturalistic observation
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
  12. correlation
    a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
  13. correlation coefficient
    a statistical index of the relationship between two things
  14. scatterplots
    • -a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
    • -slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between two variables
    • -amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
  15. illusory correlation
    the perseption of a relationship where none exists
  16. experiment
    • -a research method in which a researcher directly manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
    • -make it possible to establish cause-effect relationship
  17. random assignment
    the procedure of assigning participants to the experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
  18. double-blind procedure
    • -an experimental procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the research participants are aware of which group is recieving the treatment
    • -used to prevent experimenters' and participants expectations from influenceing the results of an experiment
  19. placebo effect
    occurs when the results of an experiment are cuased by expectations alone
  20. experimental group
    participants in an experiment are exposed to the independent variable being studied
  21. control group
    group in which the treatment of interest or independent variable is withheld so that comparison to the experimental condition can be made
  22. independent variable
    the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator
  23. dependent variable
    • -the factor being measured by the investigator
    • -the factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
  24. mode
    • -the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
    • -simplest measure of central tendency to determine
  25. mean
    the arithmetic average, the measure of central tendency computed by adding the scores in a distribution and dividing by the number of scores
  26. median
    the score that falls at the 50th % cutting a distirbution in half
  27. range
    a meausure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
  28. standard deviation
    • -a computed measure of how much scores in a distribution deviate around the mean
    • -more precise measure of variation than the range because it is based on every score in the distribution
  29. normal curve
    the symetrical, bell-shaped distribution describing many types of psychological data, in which most scores fall near the mean, with fewer and fewer at the extremes
  30. statistical significance
    an obtained result, such as the difference between the average for two smaples, very likely reflects a real difference rather than sampling variation or chance factors
  31. culture
    the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next