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What are the 2 major classifications?
Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
What is the 1st fat-soluble vitamin found?
What are the three major forms in animals?
- retinoic acid
What is Beta-carotene?
- found in plants
- you get it from eating carrots
What are the functions of vitamin A?
- maintains the cornea
- transparent membrane caring the outside of the eye
Cells in the retina contain the pigment what?
Rhodepsin is what?
made up of protein opsin and 1 molecule of retinal.
What is epithelial cells?
Cells that line any surface that has contact with outside
Tissues and cells that produce mucus must have?
Infections diseases are big problems with?
Vitamin A deficiency
1st level; when retinal does not receive enough retinal to rejuvenate visual pigment.
- full blindness
- no vitamin A at cornia.
- Will get hard and dry which is (reversable)
- Then eventually very soft (irreversable)= blindness
- skin cells start making keratin
- gets dry, rough, and scaley
Beta-Carotene as antioxidant is?
Biological activity is to act as a antioxidant that can deactivate free radicals.
what are vitamin a deficiencies?
- infectious disease
- night blindness
- blindness (xerophthalmia)
What are vitamin A toxicity?
- Bone defects
- Birth defects
- Acne treatments
- Excess beta- carotene leads to skin discoloration
What are bone defects?
Excessive vitamin A can weaken bones and cause bones to be more prone to fractures
Consumes high amounts. About 7th week of pregnancy can happen.
Acutane-causes birthdefects-> vitamin A
What are the functions of vitamin D?
- 1. enhance absorbtion and the GI track
- 2. increases reabsorbtion in kidneys
- 3. increases mobilization from bones to blood.
What are Vitamin D deficiency?
- can occur in older adults
- In children- causes growth retardation, happens when bones fail to calcify
- bones weak and bend (boned legs)
Adults form of rickets
- in women with repeated pregnancy
- low sun exposer
- low calcium intake
How does vitamin D deficiency occur in older adults?
- 1. skin, liver, kidney less cappable of making vitamin D
- 2. don't drink much milk
- 3. Don't go outside
High blood calcium occurs with?
- high vitamin D intake causes:
- calcium stones in soft tissue such as kidneys
Only vitamin D products can cause toxity not from the sun
Vitamin E's most active form is?
alpha in humans
Erythrocyte hemolysis is what?
Bursting of red blood cells occurs when poly unsatturated fatty acids in cell membrain of red blood cells oxidize RBC's break open and spill contents
can occur in infants
Vitamin K is produced by?
Bacteria and GI track
Ifants are sterol at birth and given what shot?
Vitamin K so not defestiont
What are the functions of Vitamin K?
- synthesis of bone proteins
- blood clotting
- if you don't have vitamin K proteins cant bind calcium.
Hemorrhagic disease is?
excesive bleeding because not forming blood clots.
Sources of vitamin K are?
- bacteria synthesis
- leafy green vegtables