Medical Terminology Ch 14 .txt

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mhunger
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80230
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Medical Terminology Ch 14 .txt
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2011-04-17 18:59:02
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medical terminology
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medical terminology ch 14 - muscles and skeletal system
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  1. periosteum
    outermost layer of bone, made up of fibrous tissue
  2. compact bone
    dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
  3. cancellous bone (spongy bone)
    contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
  4. endosteum
    membranous linking of the hollow cavity of the bone
  5. disphysis
    shaft of the long bones
  6. epiphysis
    end of each long bone
  7. bone marrow
    material found in the cavities of bones
  8. red marrow
    thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation
  9. yellow marrow
    soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
  10. maxilla
    upper jawbone
  11. mandible
    lower jawbone
  12. vertebral column
    made up of bones called vertebrae (pl) or vertebra (sing) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
  13. cervical vertebrae
    C1-C7 first set of seven bones, forming at the neck
  14. thoracic vertebrae
    T1-T12 second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
  15. lumbar vertebrae
    L1-L5 third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
  16. sacrum
    next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
  17. coccyx
    four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
  18. lamina (pl laminae)
    part of the vertebral arch
  19. clavicle
    collarbone
  20. scapula
    shoulder blade
  21. acromion process
    extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder
  22. sternum
    breastbone
  23. xiphoid process
    lower portion of the sternum
  24. humerus
    upper arm bone
  25. ulna
    lower arm bone
  26. radius
    lower arm bone
  27. olecranon process
    projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
  28. carpal bones
    wrist bones
  29. metacarpal bones
    hand bones
  30. phalanges (phalanx)
    finger and toe bones
  31. pelvic (hip) bone
    made up of three bones fused together - ischium, ilium, pubis
  32. ischium
    lower, rear portion on which one sits
  33. ilium
    upper, wing-shaped part on each side
  34. pubis
    anterior portion of the pelvic bone
  35. acetabulum
    large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
  36. femur
    upper leg bone
  37. tibia
    lower leg bone
  38. fibula
    lower leg bone
  39. patella (pl. patellae)
    kneecap
  40. tarsal bones
    ankle bones
  41. calcaneus
    heel bone
  42. metatarsal bones
    foot bones
  43. articular cartilage
    smooth layer of gristle covering the contracting surface of joints
  44. meniscus
    crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
  45. intervertebral disk
    cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
  46. pubic symphysis
    cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together
  47. synovia
    fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
  48. bursa (pl. bursae)
    fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
  49. ligament
    flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
  50. tendon
    band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
  51. aponeurosis
    strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
  52. skeletal muscles (striated muscles)
    attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles are voluntary - they produce action by pulling and pushing in pairs and we have control over them.
  53. smooth muscles (unstriated muscles)
    located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. Involuntary muscles - respond to impulses from autonomic nerves
  54. cardiac muscles (myocardium)
    forms most of the wall of the heart. Involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
  55. abduction
    movement of drawing away from the middle
  56. adduction
    movement of drawing toward the middle
  57. inversion
    turning inward
  58. eversion
    turning outward
  59. extension
    movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position
  60. flexion
    movement in which a limb is bent
  61. pronation
    movement that turns the palm down
  62. supination
    movement that turns the palm up
  63. rotation
    turning around its own axis
  64. carp/o
    carpals (wrist bones)
  65. clavic/o
    clavicle (collarbones)
  66. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collarbones)
  67. cost/o
    rib
  68. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  69. femor/o
    femur (upper leg bone)
  70. fibul/o
    fibula (lower leg bone)
  71. peronr/o
    fibula (lower leg bone)
  72. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  73. ili/o
    ilium
  74. ischi/o
    ischium
  75. lumb/o
    loin, lumbar region of the spine
  76. mandibul/o
    mandible (lower jawbone)
  77. maxill/o
    maxilla (upper jawbone)
  78. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  79. pelv/i (pelv/o)
    pelvis, pelvic bone
  80. phalang/o
    phalanges (finger or toe bone)
  81. pub/o
    pubis
  82. rachi/o
    spine, vertebral column
  83. radi/o
    radius (lower arm bone)
  84. sacr/o
    sacrum
  85. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade)
  86. spondyl/o
    vertebra
  87. vertebr/o
    vertebra
  88. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  89. tarso/o
    tarsals (ankle bones)
  90. tibi/o
    tibia (lower leg bone)
  91. uln/o
    ulna (lower arm bone)
  92. arthr/o
    joint
  93. chondr/o
    cartilage
  94. ankyl/o
    crooked, stiff, bent
  95. kinesi/o
    movement, motion
  96. kyph/o
    hump
  97. myel/o
    bone marrow
  98. oste/o
    bone
  99. scoli/o
    crooked, curved
  100. inter-
    between
  101. supra-
    above
  102. sym-
    together, joined
  103. syn-
    together, joined
  104. -asthenia
    weakness
  105. -clasia
    break
  106. -clasis
    break
  107. -clast
    break
  108. -desis
    surgical fixation, fusion
  109. -physis
    growth
  110. -schisis
    split, fissure
  111. bunion
    abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe. Common problem, often hereditary or caused by poorly fitting shoes
  112. hallux valgus
    another work for bunion
  113. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve. Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in portions of the hand and fingers
  114. gout
    disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals to be deposited in the joints, especially that of the great toe, producing arthritis
  115. muscular dystrophy (MD)
    group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
  116. osteoporosis
    abnormal loss of bone density occurring predominantly in postmenopausal women, which can lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrist.
  117. chiropractic
    system of therapy that consists of manipulation of the vertebral column
  118. prothesis (pl. protheses)
    an artifical substitute for a missing body part such as a leg, eye, or total hip replacement

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