AP Psychology

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AP Psychology
2011-04-17 19:46:44

Chapter 2
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  1. biological psychology
    the study of the links between biology and behavior
  2. neuron
    • nerve cell
    • basic building block of the nervous system
  3. sensory neurons
    carry info. and instructions for action from the central nervous system for processing
  4. motor neurons
    carry info. and instructions for action from the CNS to muscles and glands
  5. interneurons
    neurons of the CNS that link sensory and motor neurons in the transmission of sensory inputs and otor outputs
  6. dendrite
    • in a neuron
    • bushy, branching extensions that recieve messages from other nerve cells adn conduct impulses toward the cell body
  7. axon
    extension that sends impulses to toher nerve cells or to muscles or to glands
  8. myelin sheath
    layer of fatty tissue that segmentally covers many axons and helps speed neural impulses
  9. action potential
    neural impulse gereated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in axon's membrane
  10. threshold
    the level of stimulation that must be exceeded in order for neuron to fire, or generate an electrical impulse
  11. synapse
    • the junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of the recieveing neuron
    • tiny gap at this junction is called synaptic gap or cleft
  12. neurotransmitters
    chemicals that are released into synaptic gaps and so transmit neutral messages from neuron to neuron
  13. endorphins
    • natural, opiatelike neurootransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
    • Endorphins end pain
  14. reuptake
    the absorption of excess neurotransmitters by a sending neuron
  15. nervous system
    speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells in the PNS and CNS
  16. Central nervous system (CNS)
    • consists of the brain and spinal cord
    • located at the center, or internal core, of the body
  17. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands
    • located at the periphery of the body relatie to the brain and spinal cord
  18. nerves
    bundles of neural axons, which are part of the PNS, that connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs
  19. Somatic Nervous System
    the division of the PNS that enables voluntary control of the skeletal muscles
  20. Autonomic Nervous System
    • divivsion of the PNS that controls the glands and muscles of internal organs and thereby controls internal functioning
    • regulates the automatic behaviors necessary for survival
  21. Sympathetic Nervous System
    division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body mobolizing its energy in stressfull situations
  22. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    divivsion of the autonomic nercvous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
  23. reflex
    • simple, sutonomic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus
    • governed by a very simple neutral pathway
  24. endocrine system
    body's "slower" chemical communication system, consists of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
  25. hormones
    chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and circulate through the bloodstream to their target tissues, on which they have specific effects
  26. adrenal glands
    produce epinephrine and norepinephrine that prepare the bosy to deal with emergencies or stress
  27. pituitary glands
    • under the influence of the hypothalamus
    • regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
    • "master gland"
  28. lesion
    • destruction of tissue
    • helps researchers to determine the normal functions of these regions
  29. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    an amplified recording of waves of electrical activity of brain
  30. PET scan
    measures levels of activity of different areas of brain by tracing their consumption of a radioactive form of glucose, brain's fuel
  31. MRI scan
    uses magnetic fields to radio waves to produce computer-genrated images that show brain structures more clearly
  32. fMRI
    MRI scans taken less than a second apart are compared to reveal blood flow and therefore brain sturcture and function
  33. brainstem
    • an extension of the spinal cord and is the central core of the brain
    • sturctures direct sutimatic survival function
  34. medulla
    controls breathing and heartbeat
  35. reticular formation
    nerve network that play an important role in controlling arousal
  36. thalamus
    routes incoming messages to the appropriate cortical centers and transmits replies to medulla dn cerebellum
  37. cerebellum
    processes sensory input and coordinates movement output and balance
  38. limbic system
    neural system associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and basic physiological drives
  39. amygdala
    part of the limbic system ad influences the emotions of fear and aggresion
  40. hypothalamus
    • regulates hunger, thrist, body temp., sexual beh.
    • helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland and contains the so called reward centers of brain
  41. cerebral cortex
    thin intricate covering of interconnected neural cells atop the cerebral hemispheres
  42. glial cells
    guide neural connections, provide nutrients and insulating myelin and help remove excess ions and neurotransmitters
  43. frontal lobes
    involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
  44. parietal lobe
    contain sensory cortex
  45. occipital lobes
    contain visual cortex
  46. temporal lobes
    contain auditory cortex
  47. motor cortex
    controls voluntary movement
  48. sensory cortex
    registers and processes bdy touch and movement sensations
  49. association areas
    involved in higher mental functions such as learning. remembering and abstract thinking
  50. plasticity
    brain's capacity for modification, as evidenced by brain reorganization following damage
  51. neurogenesis
    formation of new neurons
  52. corpus callosum
    large band of neural fibers that links right and left cerebral hemispheres
  53. split brain
    condition in which major connections between two cerebral hemispheres are severed