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Aortic coronary branches
Right and left coronary trunk arteries
How does atrial blood flow return to venous system?
Drains directly into atria
How does ventricular blood flow return to venous system?
Drains into coronary sinus which empties into right atrium
Anastomoses of coronary arteries
Protect against arterial blockage effects
Large vessels on surface of the heart
What regulates coronary flow normally?
Precapillary arterioles (resistance vessels)
What provides energy for cardiac function?
Oxidative metabolism - i.e. high need for O2 delivery
Discomfort caused by sensory nerve stimulation by metabolite accumulation after myocardial ischemia
Poor contractility lasting many days
Result of poor perfusion
Tissue necrosis due to ischemia
Permanent myocyte loss - scar tissue develops
Reversible deterioration of myocytes due to ischemia
Why is intramyocardial pressure important?
Tension in left ventricule can half coronary perfusion during systole
Blood flow only in diastole as result
Role of nitric oxide
Vasodilator released in response to shear force
i.e. blood flow stimulates blood flow
Occluded (full or partial) coronary vessels
Factors that exacerbate coronary stenosis
Decreased arterial pressure
Coronary artery spasm
Factors that mitigate coronary stenosis
Coronary collateral formation
Arterial wall remodeling
Function of statins
Stabilize atherosclerotic coronary arteries by:
Attenuating scar formation
What is myocardial hypertrophy?
Thickened myocytes - outgrow blood supply
Exertional angina pectoris