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When does human heart begin to beat?
What carries fetal blood to placenta?
Connects umbilical vein directly to IVC
Opening in atrial septum to bypass pulmonary system
- Connects pulmonary artery to descending aorta
- To bypass pumonary system
Fetal compensation methods for decreased O2
- Increase umbilical venous resistance to improve exchange
- Increase of % flow across foramen ovale
- Redistribution to vital organs
Result of first breath
- Expansion of lung sharply drops pulmonary resistance
- Stimulates NO production (vasodilator)
- Closes ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale
Result of Right Heart Obstruction
- Hypoxemia after ductus arteriosus closure
- Limited flow to lungs from right ventricle
Note: tricuspid regurgitation, right atrial enlargement, foramen ovale enlargement
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- Left heart obstruction
- Fetal coronary perfusion via ductus arteriosus
- Upon closure, acidosis/death
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