AP Psychology

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AP Psychology
2011-04-17 23:25:36

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  1. zygote
    • fertilized egg
    • enters 2 week pd. of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
  2. embryo
    developing humann organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through 2nd month
  3. fetus
    developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
  4. teratogens
    agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
  5. fetal alcohol syndrome
    physical and cognitive abnormalities n children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
  6. habituation
    decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
  7. maturation
    biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior
  8. cognition
    all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  9. schema
    concept or framework that organizews and interprets info
  10. assimulation
    interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
  11. accomodation
    adapting our current understanding to incorporate new info
  12. sensorimotor stage
    • piaget
    • during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensoryimpressions and motor activities
  13. object permanence
    awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved
  14. preoperational stage
    • piaget
    • stage during which a child learns to use langauge but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
  15. conservation
    principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  16. egocentrism
    preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
  17. theory of mind
    ppl's idea about their own and other's mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict
  18. concrete operational stage
    • piaget
    • stage of cognitive development during which children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
  19. formal operational stage
    • piaget
    • stage of cognition development during which ppl begin to think logically about abstract concepts
  20. autism
    disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication. social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
  21. starnger anxiety
    fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months
  22. attachment
    emotional tie with another person
  23. critical pd
    optimal pd. shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
  24. imprinting
    process by which certain animals form attchments during a critical pd. very early in life
  25. basic trust
    • erik erikson
    • sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
    • formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
  26. self concept
    our understanding and evaluation of who we are
  27. adolescence
    • transition pd. from childhood to adulthood
    • puberty to individual
  28. puberty
    • pd of sexual maturation
    • person becomes capable of reproducing
  29. primary sex characteristic
    body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
  30. secondary sex characteristics
    • nonreproduction sexual characteristics
    • breasts, hips, male voice
  31. menarche
    first menstural pd
  32. identity
    • erikson
    • our sense of self
    • adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and intergrating various roles
  33. social identity
    • the "we" part of our self-concept
    • the part of our answer to "Who amI?" that comes from our group membership
  34. intimacy
    • erikson
    • ability to form close, loving, relationship
    • a primary development task in late adolescence and early adulthood
  35. emerging adulthood
    for some ppl in modern cultures, pd from late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
  36. menopause
    • time of natural cessation of menstruation
    • biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  37. cross- sectional study
    a study in which ppl of differ ages are compared with one another
  38. longitudinal study
    research in which the same ppl are restudied and retested over a long pd
  39. crystallized inteligence
    • our accumulated knowldge and verbal skills
    • tends to increase with age
  40. fluid intelligence
    • our ability to reason speedily and abstractly
    • tends to decrease during late adulthood
  41. social clock
    culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement