Micro Drug Review

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Micro Drug Review
2011-04-17 23:07:44
Microbiology Drug Review

Micro Drug Review questions for Ch 20
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  1. Does PCN work better on Gram(-) or Gram(+)?
    Gram (+) - PCN breaks down peptidoglycan
  2. How is methicillin different than standard PCN?
    • Methicillin is a semisynthetic drug - altered to be enicillinase resistant
    • caused MRSA - no longer used
  3. What is penicillinase? What makes it? How does it work?
    Penicillinase is made my bacteria - inactivates penicillin by cleaving the Beta lactam ring
  4. What does MRSA stand for?
    What kills it?
    • Methicillin Resistant Staph Aurius
    • Rx = Vancomycin
  5. How is ampicillin or amoxacillin different than standard PCN?
    They are semisynthetic - altered to be broad spectrum by adding a polar group- can kill Gram (-) bacteria
  6. What is primaxin?
    • last generation PCN and most powerful
    • will kill 98% of hospital microbes
  7. What is Augmentin?
    • Augmentin = amoxicillin + penicillinase inhibitor
    • broad spectrum & resistant to penicillinase
  8. What has each succesive generation of cephalosporins improved on?
    Each gen works better against Gram (-) - broader spectrum
  9. What is the 1st line drug for TB?
    What is it combined with and why?
    What does INH stand for?
    Does it have any major side effects that can kill you?
    • INH = isoniazid
    • Rx = 1 year of INH + rifampin or ethambutol
    • can cause drug hepatitis
  10. What is the most dangerous side effect of chloramphenicol?
    can cause aplastic anemia - no blood cell production
  11. Name 2 aminoglycosides.
    What 2 major side effects to aminoglycodies have?
    How do you prevent them?
    Do aminoglycosides work better against Gram(+) or Gram (-)?
    • streptomycin
    • neomycin
    • gentamycin
    • Ototoxic (auditory nerve) & nephrotoxic (renal failure)
    • Prevent damage by monitoring blood levels for toxicity
    • Broad spectrum but work best on Gram (-)
  12. What is doxycycline?
    Is it a broad spectrum antibiotic?
    What 2 side effects can it cause?
    Should you stop using it during pregnancy?
    • Doxycycline is a Tetracycline that blocks protein synthesis
    • Broad spectrum- excellent penetrating properties
    • Can wipe out normal flora→ superinfection
    • also stains developing teeth
  13. What class of drug is zithromax?
    Is it broad spectrum?
    • Macrolides - inhibits protein synthesis
    • broad spectrum PO
  14. What is Cipro used for?
    • Blocks DNA replication
    • Used for B. anthrax & UTIs - IV for urosepsis
  15. What is Bactrim?
    Why is it synergistic?
    What is it often used to treat?
    What gram (-) microbe whould it be especially effective against?
    • Bactrim is a Sulfa drug (sulfonamides)
    • Bactrim = TMP (trimethoprim) + SMZ (sulfamethoxazole) - need less of each drug alone
    • - inhibits folic acid synthesis (PABA blocker)
  16. What Sulfa drug is used to treat burn patients?
    What heavy metal does it contain?
    What does this metal do?
    • Silvadene = silver + sulfadiazene
    • Compeditive inhibitor
    • Silver causes heavy metal toxicity to bacteria (denatures proteins)
  17. What is Amphotericin B?
    What is it used for?
    What is its major side effect?
    • Amphotericin B is an Antifungal drug - effects sterols of fungus
    • Used to treat systemic fungal infections (IV) & oral thrush PO
    • It is nephrotixic - renal failure
  18. What is Monistat 7?
    What is it used for?
    Miconazole is an Antifungal drug that effects ergosterol (sterol) in fungus cell membrane

    Monistat 7 is a topical antifungal cream used to treat Candida vaginitis (yeast infection)
  19. What is a dermatophyte?
    Where do they live?
    How do you kill them?
    • Dermatophytes are nail fungus - they live under fingernails & toenails
    • Terbinafine - Lamisil - is used to kill them - alters cell membrane steroles = loss of selective permeability
  20. What is AZT?
    What does it treat?
    How does it work?
    • AZT = Ziduvidine - Antiviral drug that is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • Used to treat HIV which is an RNA retrovirus - needs reverse transcriptase to make DNA to replicate
  21. What is amantadine?
    What is it used for?
    • Amantadine is an Antiviral drug that inhibits viral uncoating - cant replicate
    • Used to treat Influenza, MS, Parkinson's
  22. What is acyclovir?
    What is it used for?
    acyclovir = Zovirax - an antiviral drug that blocks DNA replication by making false nucleotides

    Used to treat Herpes simplex I & II, varicella (chicken pox & shingles), Epstein Barr (Mono)
  23. What is chloroquine?
    What is it used for?
    • Chloroquine is a quinine derivative - Anti-protozoan drug
    • #1 drug for Malaria (plasmodium)
  24. What is Flagyl?
    Why is it used when someones bowel perforates?
    • Flagyl is an Anti-protozoan drug that damages DNA (disrupts double helix shape)
    • Used to treat Giardia (protozoa)
    • It is used for bowel perforations becuase it also kills anaerobic bacteria