A&P Chapter 12

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A&P Chapter 12
2011-04-17 23:22:33

A&P Chapter 12: Nervous System
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  1. The function of the nervous system along with the endocrine system is to:
  2. Central Nervous system (CNS) consists of :
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  3. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of:
    Nerves that lie in the "outer regions" of the nervous system
  4. Afferent consists of:
    all incoming sensory pathways
  5. Efferent consists of :
    all outgoing motor pathways
  6. Somatic nervous system (SNS) think of:
    Skeletal muscles
  7. What do Gila cells do?
    Support neurons
  8. 5 Major types of Glia cells
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Epondymal
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Schwann
  9. Astrocytes (in CNS)
    • Most numerous type of Glia cell
    • Star shaped
    • Connect to both neurons and capillaries
  10. Microglia (in CNS)
    • Small stationary cells
    • Carry on phagocytosis
  11. Ependymal (in CNS)
    Resemble epithelial cells: lin fluid-filled cavities in CNS
  12. Oligodendrocytes (in CNS)
    Hold nerve fibers together and produce myelin sheath
  13. Schwann (in PNS)
    Support nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths
  14. Myelin sheath gaps are called:
    nodes of Ranvier
  15. Most outter portion of Schwann cell is called:
  16. ______ cells are Schwann cells that cover and support cell bodies in the PNS
  17. Neuron body doesn't:
    regenerate its self, it is not repairable
  18. Dendrites conduct:
    nerve signals to the cell body of the neuron
  19. Axon conducts:
    nerve impulses away from the cell body of the neuron
  20. Micro filaments in cytoskeleton
    move mitochondria
  21. 4 main functional regions of the neuron
    • Input zone- dendrites adn cell body
    • Summation zone- axon hillock
    • Conduction zone- axon
    • Output zone- telodentria and synaptic knobs of axon
  22. Summation zone is were:
    impulse are organized
  23. 3 Classifications of neurons
    • Multipolar-one axon, several dendrites
    • Bipolar- only one axon adn one dendrite
    • Unipolar (Psudounipolar)- one process comes off neuron cell body, divides immediately into two fibers
  24. Synapse is where:
    nerve signals are transmitted from on neuron to another
  25. Two Types of Synapses
    • Chemical: can do both Chemical and Electrical
    • Electrical: can only do electrical
  26. Nerves are bundles of:
    peripheral nerve fibers held together by several layers of connective tissue
  27. White matter in PNS is:
    myelinated nerves
  28. White matter in CNS is:
    myelinated tracts
  29. Inside of the neuron cell it is:
    more negative
  30. Refractory period:
    no impulse can go through right AFTER action potential
  31. _____ stops when it reaches the synapse
    Refractory period
  32. Will not respond to any stimulus no matter how strong is called the:
    Absolute refractory period
  33. Action potential
    membrane potential of a neuron that is conducting an impulse; or nerve impulse
  34. Action potentials only occur at the:
    nodes of Ronvier, impulse conduction is called saltatory conduction
  35. Spacial summation adding together:
    the effects of several knobs being activated simultaneously and stimulating different locations on the postsynaptic membrane, production an action potential
  36. Temporal summation when synaptick knobs:
    stimulate a postsynaptic neuron in rapid succession, their effects can summate over a brif period of time to produce an action potential
  37. Neurotransmitters are how
    nerons communicate with one another
  38. 3 main types of Small-molecule neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Amines: monamines and catecholamins
    • Amino Acids
  39. Peptides are:
    2 or more amino acids
  40. Neurotrophins:
    nerve growth and repair
  41. Neurotransmitters released into the blood stream are called: