Biology Chapter 23-24

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Biology Chapter 23-24
2011-04-18 00:55:39
Bio Chapter

Biology Chapter 23-24: The Immune system
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  1. Innate immunity: (part of you)
    all animals have some form that is a first line of defense
  2. Pathogens
    infectious agents that can cause disease
  3. Phagocytes
    engulfing and destroying foreign substances
  4. Infection
    Redness, Heat and Swelling
  5. The inflammatory response
    • 1.Tissue injury- release of chemicla signals: histamine
    • 2. Dilation and increase leakiness of local blood vessels-migration of phagocytes to area
    • 3. Phagocytes consume bacteria and cell debris-tissue heals
  6. Lymphatic system involed in both
    • innate and aquired immuninty
    • Consists of: Thymus and spleen
  7. 2 main functions of Lymphatic system are to:
    • Fight Infection
    • Return fluid to cirulatory system
  8. Foregin molecule that elicits an acquired immune response is called an
  9. B-Cells
    Bone marrow (humoral immune response)
  10. T cells:
    thymus (cell-mediated immune response)
  11. Steps of clonal selection: Primary immune response
    • 1. B-cells with different antigen receptors
    • 2. Antigen molecules attach to the receptors
    • 3. Selective cell is activated, grows and divides into two identical cells
    • 4. First group is effector cells that combat the antigen are short lived
    • 5. Second group of cells is memory cells last for decades.
  12. Humans have a ________ circulatory system
  13. Arteries
    • carry blood AWAY from the heart to body organs and tissues
    • thicker connective tissue and thicker smooth muscle
  14. Veins
    • return blood to the heart
    • has a one-way valve
  15. Capillaries
    convey blood between arteries and veins with each tissue
  16. What doesn't have a blood pressure
  17. Blood moves back from capillaries into veins by:
    muscle contration and breathing
  18. Fish have:
    2 chambered heart
  19. Amphibian have
    3 chambered heart
  20. Mammal have
    4 chambered heart
  21. Explain blood flow through heart
    Starts at right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs via pulmonary arteries then through the capillaries of the lungs with oxygen rich blood that flows back through pulmonary veins to the left atrium from there the blood flows to the left ventricle and leaves the heart through the aorta. Which then supplies the capillaries of the head, chest and arms and also the cappilaries of the abdomon and legs. The capillaries rejoin to veins and oxygen-poor blood is channeled into the superior and inferior vena cava which then goes into the right atrium.
  22. Mammalina heart contains:
    • 2 thin-walled atria
    • Pump blood
    • 2 thick-wall ventricles
  23. Systole is the top # of Blood Pressure and is when
    • the heart is working
    • going from atria into ventricles
  24. Diastole is the bottom # in Blood pressure and is when
    • the heart is resting
    • going from veins into heart chambers
  25. We all have pacemaker which is
    SA-node (Sinoatrial node)
  26. Heart attack
    myocardial infarction damage of cardiac muscle as a result of blockage
  27. Artherosclerosis
    • build up of plaque developed in the inner walls of ateries
    • Treated by: Bypass and Angioplasty
  28. Stroke
    death of brain tissue resulting from blockage of ateries in the head
  29. Bypass is:
    saphenous vein from the leg to replace clotted vein in heart
  30. Angioplasty/Stent
    Blow up of balloon and place a wire mesh tubes to prop arteries open
  31. Pulse pressure is the:
    difference between systolic and diastolic
  32. Blood pressure is the:
    force that blood exerts against walls of blood vessels
  33. Hypertension is when the heart:
    works hearder to pump blood through the body
  34. White blood cells( Leukocytes) are defense and immunity with 5 types
    Basophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte and Neutrophil
  35. Red blood cells are called
  36. Plasma proteins
    Fibrinogen and Immunoglobulins
  37. Low red blood cell count
  38. Explain: Blood clots
    • Platelets adhere to exposed connictive tissue
    • Platelet plug forms
    • Fibrin clot traps blood cells