Biology Ch 32-34

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nicknguyen93
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Biology Ch 32-34
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2011-04-18 01:38:47
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  1. Parazoa
    lack true tissue

    Phylum Porifera
  2. Eumetazoa
    have true tissue

    • Radiata (radial symmetry, round body plan, no head)
    • Bilateria (bilateral symmetry, comes with dvlt of head)
  3. Porifera
    • sponges
    • dead end phylum
    • adults sessile, larvae free swimming
    • choanocytes - circulate water
    • amoebocytes - take up food, digest it, and carry nutrients
  4. Phylum Cnidaria
    • tentacles with cnidocytes (cnidocil is trigger)
    • gastrovascular cavity (incomplete digestive system)
    • medusa - free swimming
    • polyp - sessile
    • ex: hydra, jellies, corals
  5. Phylum Ctenophora
    • comb jellies
    • largest animal to use cilia for locomotion
  6. Radiata
    • Cnidaria
    • Ctenophora
  7. Bilateria
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Nemertea
    • Rotifera
    • Nematoda
    • Mollusca
    • Annelida
    • Arthropoda
    • Echinodermata
    • Chordata
  8. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • flat worms
    • incomplete digestive system
    • tapeworms, flukes, planarians
  9. Nemertea
    • complete digestive system
    • closed circulatory system
    • use proboscis to search, defend, and capture prey
  10. Rotifera
    • complete digestive tract
    • parthenogenesis
  11. Phylum Nematoda
    • exclusively sexual reproduction
    • roundworms
    • ex: Trichinella
  12. Acoelomates
    no body cavity between digestive tract and and outer body wall

    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Ctenophora
    • Platyhelminthes
    • Nemertea
  13. Pseudocoelomates
    body cavity only partially lined by mesodermally derived tissue

    • Rotifera
    • Nematoda
  14. Coelomates
    Body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue

    • Mollusca
    • Annelida
    • Arthropoda
    • Echinodermata
    • Chordata
  15. Protostomes
    • spiral development
    • determinate cleavage
    • blastopore forms mouth
    • coelom forms from splits in mesoderm

    • Mollusca
    • Annelida
    • Arthropoda
  16. Deuterostomes
    • radial development
    • indeterminate cleavage
    • mouth forms from secondary opening
    • coelom froms from splits in mesodermal outpocketings

    • Echinodermata
    • Chordata
  17. Phylum Mollusca
    • mantle, foot, visceral mass
    • radula - specialized feeding organ
    • open circulatory system
    • trochophore larvae
  18. Phylum Annelida
    • segmented worms
    • many are hermaphrodites
    • closed circulatory system
    • setae - bristles for locomotion

    ex: earthworms
  19. Phylum Arthropoda
    • largest animal phylum
    • dorsal heart, ventral nervous system
    • open circulatory system
    • jointed appendages and segmented bodies
  20. Phylum Echinodermata
    • radial symmetry
    • larvae have bilateral symmetry
    • pentamerism - radial symmetry based on units of five
    • endoskeleton of CaCO3 which produces spines
    • Water Vascular System for locomotion, feeding, gas exchange
  21. Phylum Chordata
    • notochord (flixible rod as simple skeleton)
    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord (dev into brain and spinal cord)
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • Muscular postanal tail containing skeletal elements and muscles

    • Urochordata
    • Cephalochordata
    • Vertebrata
  22. Urochordata
    • tunicates (sea squirts)
    • mostly sessile
    • saclike body
    • retain gill slits as adults
  23. Cephalochordata
    • lancelets
    • somites - blocks of muscle show link to segmented organs
    • retain all 4 chordata characteristics
  24. Vertebrata
    • cephalization - concentration of sense organs at anterior end
    • Skeleton with cranium and vertebral column
    • anatomical adaptations to support active metabolism

    • agnatha
    • chondrichthyes
    • osteichthyes
    • amphibia
    • reptilia
    • aves
    • mammalia
  25. Agnatha
    • jawless fish
    • ex: lampreys, hagfish
  26. Chondrichthyes
    • carilage fish; sharks, rays, skates
    • well developed jaws, paired fins
    • keen senses
    • internal fertilization
    • may be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous
  27. Osteichthyes
    • bony fish
    • operculum- bony plate covering gills
    • swim bladder
    • most oviparous, fertilization external
  28. Amphibia
    • first land vertebrates
    • moist skin, external fertilization, mostly oviparous
    • ex: salamanders, frogs
  29. Reptilia
    • first animals with lungs
    • shelled amniotic egg
    • internal fertilization
    • ectothermic
  30. Aves
    • birds
    • evolved from reptiles
    • honeycombed bones, air sacs off lungs, no teeth
    • endothermic
    • 4 chambered heart (allows incr metabolic rate)
  31. Mammalia
    • hair of keratin
    • active metabolism with diaphragm
    • mammary glands, internal fertilization, large brain
    • 3 major groups: Monotremes (egg layers), Marsupials (pouch) and Placentals
  32. Primates
    • first were small and arboreal
    • limber shoulder joints
    • opposable thumbs, stereoscopic vision
  33. Coelum
    • allows for new diverse methods of locomotion
    • provides body space for storage and for complex organ development
    • cushion that protects internal structures
  34. Land adaptations for reptiles
    • scales with keratin waterproof skin
    • lungs for oxygen
    • amniotic eggs
    • ectotherms (abosrb external heat)
  35. First mammals
    • therapsids
    • very small, nocturnal

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