MSK: arm and hand
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Which fingers does the median nerve supply?
Which fingers does the ulnar nerve supply?
Which fingers does the radial nerve supply?
Where does the long head of the biceps tendon originate? the short head?
- Long head: supraglenoid tubercle
- Short head: coracoid process
Where does the biceps insert?
Radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis.
What actions does the biceps do?
Flexes forearm, Flexes arm, supinates forearm.
Name the 3 Forearm flexor muscles.
- Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis
- ( all have brachi-)
Where does the brachialis originate and insert?
- Origin: Distal anterior surface of humerus.
- Insertion: ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna.
Where does the brachoradialis originate and insert?
- Originate: Lateral, distal humerus
- insertion: Superior to styloid process of radius
What are the 2 forearm extensor muscles?
Triceps brachii and the aconeus
Where does the triceps insert?
- Insert: Olecranon (of ulna)
What action does the triceps do?
extension of forearm and extension of shoulder
Where does the anconeus originate/insert?
- Originate: lateral epicondyle of humerus
- Insert: Olectranon and uperior shaft of ulna
What is the mmost powerful forearm flexor muscle? What muscles is it deep to?
Brachialis. Deep to the biceps.
What are the 2 forearm pronator muscles? The supinator muscle?
- Pronation: Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus
- Supination: Supinator
Which muscle is this?
Which nerve innervates the forearm extensors?
Which nerve innervates the forearm pronators?
Which 4 muscles originate at the medial epicondyle of the humerus? What action do they do?
- Superorficial Anterior (Flexor) compartment of forearm
- 1) Flexor carpi radialis
- 2) palmaris longus
- 3) flexor carpi ulnaris
- 4) flexor digitorum superficialis
Which muscle is this? Where does it insert?
Flexor digitorum superficialis. Inserts at middle phalanx of fingers II-V.
What is the biggest muscles in the forearm? (It's deep to 3 other muscles)
Flexor digitorum superficialis.
Which muscle inserts in the flexor retinaculum?
Which flexor muscle reaches to the distal phalanx of the thumb?
Flexor pollicis longus.
Which flexor muscle reaches to the distal phalanx of all fingers except the thumb?
Flexor digitorum profundus.
What does Pollic- mean? Carpi? Digit-?
- Pollic = thumb
- Carpi = wrist
- Digit =fingers
Which 2 nerves are responsible for flexion of the forearm?
Median and ulnar.
Which 2 nerves are responsible for extension of the forearm?
Raidal and deep radial nerves.
Where do most of the superficial extensor forearm muscles originate?
Lateral epicondyle of humerus.
What's a retinaculum? Name 2 in the hand.
- A band of connective tissue.
- Flexor retinaculum and extensor retinaculum.
Which muscles extend the thumb? Fingers II-IV? Finger V?
- Thumb: Extensor pollicis longus & brevis
- II-IV: Extensor digitorum
- V (pinky): Extensor digiti minimi
Which 2 muscles mainly extend the wrist?
Extensor carpi (wrist) radialis longus & brevis
the 4 pollics muscles form what?
The thenar eminence.
The 3 muscles acting on the little finger form what?
The hypothenar eminence.
Name the bones.
- A: Scaphoid (boatlike)
- B: Lunate (moon-shaped)
- C: Triquetrum (3-corners)
- D: Pisiform (pea-shaped)
- E: Trapezium (4 sided)
- F: Trapezoid (4 sided, but 2 sides are parallel)
- G: Capitate ( head-shaped)
- H: Hamate (hooked)
Which 3 bones does the flexor retinaculum connect to?
- medially: Hamate and pisiform
- Laterally: trapezium.
The flexor retinaculum is AKA?
Transverse carpal ligament.
What nerves are affected? What is this called?
Erb-Duchenne palsy or waiter's tip position...
What's the most commons causes of Erb's palsy?
forceful pulling away of head from shoulder, dystocia, fall on shoulder
What parts lose sensation in Erb's palsy? Which muscles are most often paralyzed?
- Lateral side of arm
- Parlysis: supraspinatus, infraspinatus
Which nerves are primarily affected in Klumpke's palsy?
C8-T1 (lower brachial plexus)
* as opposed to Erb-Duchenne, which is upper brachial plexus
Differentiate avulsion, rupture, neuroma, and neuropraxia.
- Avulsion, the most severe type, = the nerve is torn from the spine
- Rupture, =the nerve is torn but not at the spinal attachment
- Neuroma= the nerve has torn and healed but scar tissue puts pressure on the injured nerve and prevents it from conducting signals to the muscles;
- Neuropraxia or stretch, in which the nerve has been damaged but not torn.
If you can't abduct/adduct the fingers, which nerve is affected?
Which nerve is affected?
Which muscles does the Axillary nerve supply?
Deltoid and teres minor.
(& the skin over these)
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