Antho 1101 II

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ebellga
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8035
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Antho 1101 II
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2010-02-24 21:33:09
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Anthropology
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Cards for the midterm
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  1. The fact of evolution was known prior to Darwin. The theory of evolution, through naturalselection (how evolution occurred), was
    A. at odds with the fossil record
    B. actually the idea of Darwin’s grandfather
    C. compatible with theories of biblical scholars
    D. Linnaeus’s major contribution
    E. Darwin’s major contribution
    E. Darwin’s major contribution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What are the two other mechanisms of genetic evolution that complement natural selection?
    B. random genetic drift and gene flow
  3. What role do recombination and independent assortment play in evolution?
    A. They work to limit the amount of variation in a population.
    B. They act to create genetic variability in a breeding population.
    C. They increase the frequencies of deleterious genes.
    D. They act to reduce the overall fitness of a breeding population.
    E. They work to limit the number of potential phenotypes.
    B. They act to create genetic variability in a breeding population.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Mutations
    A. were discovered by Mendel.
    B. always result in phenotypic change.
    C. are sources of genetic variation.
    D. occur in 50% of sex cells.
    E. only occur during the development of an individual.
    C. are sources of genetic variation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Evolution can be most simply defined as
    A. descent with modification.
    B. natural selection.
    C. competition over strategic resources.
    D. the process of achieving a perfect fit to the environment.
    E. mutations in a breeding population.
    D. the process of achieving a perfect fit to the environment.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. In the debate of how speciation occurs, advocates of punctuated equilibrium
    A. suggest that long periods of stasis (stability), during which species change little, areinterrupted by evolutionary leaps.
    B. define species the same way creationists and gradualists do.
    C. have revived Darwin’s classic description of change over time.
    D. describe macroevolution as the gradual accumulation of evolutionary changes over time.
    E. agree with creationists on views about the flaws in fossil dating techniques.
    A. suggest that long periods of stasis (stability), during which species change little, areinterrupted by evolutionary leaps.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. It is important to understand that racial categories are based upon perceptions of phenotypicfeatures, and not on genotypes, because
    A. this means that racial categories are internationally standardized.
    B. this means that racial categories are socially defined, not biologically determined.
    C. this means that race should be determined by skeletal measurements, especially cranialcapacity.
    D. this means that you are in a place that does not use genealogy.
    E. this means that racial genotypes are more accurate.
    B. this means that racial categories are socially defined, not biologically determined.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. What is the term for a gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations?
    A. genotype
    B. cline
    C. allele
    D. phenotype
    E. cluster
    B. cline
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What is the term for adaptive biological changes that take place during an individual'slifetime?
    A. genotypical adaptation
    B. species-level adaptation
    C. phenotypical adaptation
    D. cultural adaptation
    E. linguistic adaptation
    C. phenotypical adaptation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What does Thomson's nose rule state?
    A. Nose size is causally linked to cranial capacity.E. Long noses are adaptive in hot environments.
    B. Nose size is causally linked to skin color.
    C. Long noses are adaptive in cold environments.
    D. Short noses are adaptive in cold environments.
    C. Long noses are adaptive in cold environments.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Gene flow between populations works to prevent speciation.
    True
  12. Natural selection operates directly on the genotype of an organism.
    False
  13. Physical features cluster into discrete genetic units. This permits biologists andanthropologists to distinguish among racial groups.
    False
  14. Higher amounts of melanin in the skin inhibit the body's ability to manufacture vitamin D.
    True
  15. One of Mendel's contributions to genetics was that he discovered traits were inherited asdiscrete units.
    True
  16. What is the relevance of primatology to anthropology?
    A.it provides evidence for a newly revised description of the Great Chain of Being
    B.it is central to anthropologists who work in forensics
    C.there is no longer any relevance of primatology to anthropology because the most important research in the field has already been done
    D. primatology is relevant only to applied anthropologists concerned about deforestationand poaching
    E.it helps anthropologists make inferences about the early social organization of hominidsand untangle issues of human nature and the origins of culture
    E.it helps anthropologists make inferences about the early social organization of hominidsand untangle issues of human nature and the origins of culture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. 2.Which of the following are most closely related to chimpanzees?
    A.siamangs
    B.lemurs
    C.humans
    D.orangutans
    E.gibbons
    C.humans
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. 3.What is the term for a trait that organisms have jointly inherited from a common ancestor?
    A.analogy
    B.homology
    C.phenotypeD.allele
    E.meiosis
    B.homology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following traits is not associated with primates?
    A.grasping adaptations
    B.stereoscopic vision
    C.social groupings
    D.brain complexity
    E.reliance on smell as the main sense
    E.reliance on smell as the main sense
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Platyrrhines/catarrhines is the same as
    A.prosimians/anthropoids.
    B.terrestrial/arboreal.
    C.brachiators/non-brachiators.
    D.New World monkeys/Old World monkeys.
    E.Old World monkeys/New World monkeys.
    D.New World monkeys/Old World monkeys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Sexual dimorphism refers to
    A.marked differences in male and female anatomy and temperament
    B.marked differences between terrestrial and arboreal mating patterns.
    C.sexual maturation rates of prosimian.
    D.marked differences between Old World and New World monkeys.
    E.continued sexual discrimination in anthropology departments
    A.marked differences in male and female anatomy and temperament
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. What species is believed to be ancestral to the modern orangutan?
    A. Gigantopithecus
    B. Dryopithecus
    C. Sivapithecus
    D. Pierolapithecus
    E. Afropithecus
    C. Sivapithecus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What is the name of the theological belief that all living things could be placed in aprogressive hierarchy?
    A. Divine Classification
    B. Binomial Nomenclature
    C. Heavenly Order
    D. Celestial Hierarchy of Life
    E. Great Chain of Being
    E. Great Chain of Being
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Based on scientific theories of evolution, humans are not descended from gorillas orchimps. Rather,
    A. they are descended from gorillas only.
    B. it is the other way around: gorillas and chimps are descended from humans.
    C. humans were descended from Adam and Eve.
    D. they are descended from chimps.
    E. humans and the African apes share a common ancestor.
    E. humans and the African apes share a common ancestor.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, or “Toumai”
    A. apparently lived in a habitat with scarce animal life and mountain terrain.
    B. moves scientists close to the time when humans and the American apes diverged from acommon ancestor.
    C. may be the oldest possible “missing link” between gorillas and Oreopithecus bambolii.
    D. may be the oldest possible human ancestor yet found.
    E. looks more like a chimp than a human, especially because it has a protruding snout.
    D. may be the oldest possible human ancestor yet found.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Humans and apes belong to the same taxonomic superfamily, Hominoidea.
    True
  27. Like apes and hominids, Old World monkeys have full color vision, which prosimians andmost New World monkeys lack.
    True
  28. The earliest primates were exclusive carnivores
    False
  29. Hominins first appeared in the late Miocene or early Pliocene (5 to 2 m.y.a.).
    True
  30. Evidence suggests that Oreopithecus may have been able to shuffle in an upright posture.
    True
  31. A characteristic trend in hominin evolution has been the increase in brain size, especiallywith the advent of the genus Homo. But this increase had to overcome some obstacles. Inparticular,
    A. the challenges of walking with head that is too heavy.
    B. larger skulls demand more elastic birth canals, but skeletal development during awoman’s lifetime limit the elasticity of birth canals.
    C. larger skulls demand larger birth canals, but the requirements of upright bipedalismimpose limits on the expansion of the human pelvic opening.
    D. overcoming the trend of clumsy locomotion that makes hominins vulnerable topredators.
    E. overcoming the trend of ever more self-sufficient children that are eager to separatethemselves from their mothers.
    C. larger skulls demand larger birth canals, but the requirements of upright bipedalismimpose limits on the expansion of the human pelvic opening.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Australopithecus had at least six species:
    A. A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi, A. robustus, and A. boisei
    B. all discovered in Africa except, A. boisei.
    C. A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. kenyanthropus, A. kadabba, A. garhi, and A. robustus
    D. but only 5 of them have been confirmed to be bipedal, thus putting into question that allaustralopithecines were hominins.
    E. all discovered and named by the Leaky family.
    A. A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi, A. robustus, and A. boisei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. “Lucy” is the nickname of
    A. Mary Leaky
    B. an A. anamensis, found in Tanzania.
    C. Timothy White’s favorite fossil.
    D. an A. afarensis, found in the Hadar site.
    E. Jane Goodall
    D. an A. afarensis, found in the Hadar site.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. What is one of the probable explanations of the extinction of the australopithecines?
    A. The broad-spectrum revolution was not adaptive.
    B. They had no social organization.
    C. They were eventually unsuccessful in competing for available resources with earlypopulations of Homo.
    D. They were a short-lived, transitional stage between apes and humans.
    E. They are relatively unimportant to the study of human evolution.
    C. They were eventually unsuccessful in competing for available resources with earlypopulations of Homo.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following is a difference between Homo erectus and the australopithecines?
    A. Homo erectus' cranial capacity was much larger.
    B. Homo erectus' mortuary practices are less elaborate.
    C. Homo erectus had the largest sagittal crest of any hominin.
    D. Homo erectus exhibited full bipedalism.
    E. The australopithecines' teeth suggest they ate a lot more meat.
    A. Homo erectus' cranial capacity was much larger.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. How were Oldowan tools manufactured?
    A. By pressuring a stone core with deer antlers to produce flakes.
    B. By striking steel against a stone core.
    C. By grinding a coarser stone against a softer one.
    D. By chipping flakes off a core.
    E. By picking animal bones and shaping them to form tools.
    D. By chipping flakes off a core.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. What model of evolutionary change does the sharp contrast between H. habilis and H.erectus support?
    A. creationism
    B. uniformitarianism
    C. convergent evolution
    D. punctuated equilibrium
    E. gradualism
    D. punctuated equilibrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. H. erectus is generally associated with which of the following lithic industries?
    A. Oldowan
    B. Neolithic
    C. Acheulian
    D. Upper Paleolithic
    E. Mousterian
    C. Acheulian
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The first hominin species to be found outside of Africa is
    A. Homo erectus.
    B. Homo ergaster.
    C. Sahelanthropus tchadensis.
    D. Eoanthropus dawsonii.
    E. Homo habilis.
    A. Homo erectus.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Where have H. erectus fossils never been found?
    A. France
    B. Indonesia
    C. Hungary
    D. China
    E. Brazil
    E. Brazil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The footprints at the site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania were made by Australopithecusafarensis.
    True
  42. The genus Homo did not appear until after all of the australopithecines had died off.
    False
  43. The recent Dmanisi fossil finds suggest a rapid spread, by 1.7 m.y.a., of early Homo out ofAfrica into Eurasia.
    True
  44. H. erectus is associated with the cultural period named Upper Paleolithic
    False
  45. A characteristic trend in hominin evolution has been the increase in brain size, especiallywith the advent of the genus Homo.
    True

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