physio endocrine test.txt

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physio endocrine test.txt
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physio endocrine test
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  1. What endocrine methods are used for local hormone rxns?
    autocrine and paracrine
  2. What endocrine methods are used for distant rxns?
    Endocrine and Neurocrine
  3. What is necessary to begin peptide hormone release?
    cAMP and Ca2+
  4. What activates the amine synthetic pathway in the adrenal medullae?
    SNS
  5. What activates the amine pathway in the thyroid gland?
    Iodide
  6. T/F: Steroid hormones are not stored after synthesis?
    T
  7. What are the three methods of hormone secretion?
    • 1) humoral
    • 2) neuronal
    • 3) hormonal
  8. What is humoral secretion of hormones?
    • When the blood concentration of a specific hormone product either increases or decreases
    • The hormone will then do the inverse to counteract the imbalance
  9. What is an example of humoral hormone secretion?
    Low Ca causes more PTH to be produced
  10. What is an example of neuronal hormone secretion?
    fright - SNS firing - Adrenal medulla release of catecholamines
  11. What is an example of hormonal hormone secretion?
    • CRH from hypo
    • ACTH from Pituitary gland
    • Cortisol from Adrenal gland
  12. What is the difference b/t where a hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormone bind?
    • hydrophilic = cell membrane receptor
    • hydrophobic = nuclear membrane receptor
  13. What are thre common effectors of G protein receptors?
    • Guanylate cyclase - cGMP
    • Adenylyl cyclase - cAMP
    • PLC - IP3+/Ca2+
  14. What is the nuclear binding receptor for steroid hormones called?
    SRE recepetor
  15. What are the areas of the SRE receptor and what binds to the areas?
    • A/B, C, D, E, F
    • Hormone binds E
    • DNA binds C at zinc fingers
  16. Which is more common, negative or positive feedback?
    Negative
  17. What are three hormones that are regulated with positive feedback
    • 1) oxytocin
    • 2) Na deplorization
    • 3) Estrogen
  18. What is the diff b/t autologous and heterologous receptor regulation?
    • Autologous: regulates own receptors
    • Heterologous: regulates another cell's receptors
  19. What is hormonal synergism?
    Sum of parts is greater than each part itself
  20. What is hormonal permisiveness?
    One hormone affects how another hormone reacts, but it does not add to its affect
  21. What is hormonal antagonism?
    Hormone A reduces effects of Hormone B
  22. What are the three classes of endocrine disorders?
    • 1) underproduction
    • 2) overproduction
    • 3) sensitivity
  23. What is the diff in the way that hormones are released from the Ant/Post pituitary?
    • Ant.: Neurocrine (inside) then Endocrine (exit)
    • Post.: Neurocrine
  24. Where are the Ant/Post pituitary derived from?
    • Ant: Gut
    • Post: brain, neural tissue
  25. What four Ant. Pit. Hormones stimulate gland growth and hormone secretion?
    ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH
  26. What two Ant. Pit. Hormones stimulate non-endocrine tissue?
    GH, PRL
  27. What is the function of TSH?
    • Release thyroid from thyroid gland
    • growth of thyroid gland
  28. What is the function of ACTH?
    • Activate adrenal gland
    • Release androgen and cortisol
  29. What is the function of FSH in M/F?
    • females: follicular dev. for egg locations
    • males: sperm production
  30. What is the function of LH in M/F?
    • females: ovulation, secretion of estrogen and progesterone
    • Males: testosterone secretion
  31. What is the function of GH?
    Growth and metabolism
  32. What is the function of PRL in M/F?
    • females: Increase milk production
    • males: LH receptors
  33. What binds ADH and Oxytocin in the axons leading to the Posterior Pituitary?
    Neurophysins
  34. What is the combination molecules makeup that carries ADH (AVP) down the axon in the posterior pituitary?
    • 4 Neurophysins (NP)
    • 5 ADH (AVP)
  35. What is the function of ADH?
    • Water retention
    • Plasma volume restoration
    • decrease plasma osmolarity
  36. As blood volume is increased, what happens to ADH?
    decreases
  37. What are the two principle functions of oxytocin?
    • Milk letdown
    • uterine contractions
  38. What is the role of Oxytocin and ANP?
    Oxytocin increases ANP release (since we want to lower blood pressure)
  39. What is the key sign of diabetes insipidus and the cause?
    • sign: dilute urine
    • Cause: lack of ADH (neurogenic or nephrogenic)
  40. What is the diff b/t hypopituitarism and panhypopituitarism?
    • Hypo: loss of one or more anterior pituitary hormone (ACTH, LH, FSH, LSH, GH, PRL)
    • Pan: Loss of all anterior pituitary hormone
  41. What does GH bind too?
    GH-binding protein *

    *not necessary b/c it is a hydrophilic peptide but since it is so important and critical it is nice to increase the half life
  42. When is GH release more prevalant, day or sleep (be specific)?
    Sleep, especially at the beginning
  43. T/F GH levels are higher in adults than children?
    • False
    • * Higher in children than adults
  44. What hormones inhibit secretion of GH?
    • Somatomedins (somatostatin, IGF)
    • GHRH (short loop)
    • GH (Long loop)

  45. What is required for GH to be Ketogenic?
    low insulin
  46. T/F GH is lipolytic?
    T, active when FFA are low to isolate fat
  47. Is protein anabolic or catabolic?
    • Anabolic
    • * helps build muscle
  48. What is the effect of GH on insulin?
    GH causes insulin resistance b/c it inhibits glucose uptake by insulin
  49. What is the effect of GH on ANP and Renin?
    • ANP decreases
    • Renin increases
    • ** increase ECF volume
  50. Increases IGF-BP1 production
    glucagon and cortisol
  51. Inhibits IGF-BP1 production
    insulin
  52. What type of growth does IGF-1 increase?
    Linear bone growth
  53. T/F GH increases in the fed and fasting state?
    T
  54. T/F GH increases in Carbohydrate fed state?
    • F
    • * Occurs b/c of high glucose level on carbs and the increase in insulin. That will inhbit GH and IGF-1
  55. What happens with GH if there is too much carb intake?
    Increases to block effects of insulin and can cause type II diabetes
  56. What is the diff b/t acromegaly and gigantism?
    • acromegaly: GH increased after puberty
    • gigantism: GH increased before puberty
  57. What are the five main functions of the thyroid gland?
    • Growth
    • Maturation
    • Metabolism
    • Heat production
    • energy mobilization
  58. In thyroid cells, what cells produce Calcitonin?
    Parafollicular (P or C) cells
  59. What happens to colloid in times of hypo/hyperthyroidism?
    • Hypo: colloid not absorbed
    • Hyper: colloid absorbed, removed
  60. What are the four steps of thyroid production?
    • 1) Iodide uptake: from food via Na channel (uptake tyrosine from blood as well)
    • 2) Incorporation: bring iodide and tyrosine together (via oxidation and organification)
    • 3) Coupling: Bring tyrosines together to form Thyroid
    • 4) Diffusion: Release thyroid finto blood
  61. What hormone increase Iodide receptors for uptake into Thyroid glands?
    TSH
  62. What is the function of Pendrin in the thyroid gland?
    • ** Oxidation **
    • Pendrin moves Iodide to the apical membrane once inside the thyroid gland
  63. What is the function of Thyroglobulin?
    • ** organification **
    • Once Iodide is at the apical membrane, it is incorporated with Tyrosine
  64. What is the function of the Wolff-Chaikoff Effect?
    • Inhibit the amount of Iodine incorporation by mainly blocking Na/I channels
    • Allows thyriod to settle to normal levels
  65. What is the function of Thyroid peroxidase?
    Couple Tyrosines (Mono and Di) to form T4 and T3
  66. What is the function of Megalin?
    To activate Colloid endocytosis into follicular cells so T4 and T3 can be released in the blood
  67. What chemical activates the splitting of T3, T4, MIT, and DIT fro Thyroglobulin?
    Thyroid Deiodinase
  68. What Thyroid Deiodinase will make T3 from T4?
    Type 2
  69. What are the negative feedback mechanisms of Thyroid production?
    • TRH
    • TSH
    • Dopamine
    • Somatostatin
    • T3 (and some T4)
  70. What organs do not receive calorgenis effects from thyroid hormone?
    • Brain
    • Gonads
    • Spleen
  71. Why is Thyroid hormone important in the fetus?
    CNS development
  72. What happens to TSH levels when Thyroid hormone is low?
    • TSH increases
    • **Occurs b/c of lack of negative feedback from T3
  73. What is the function of Levothyroxin sodium?
    Treat hypothyroidism
  74. What is the function of Methylthiouracil?
    • decrease coupling
    • decrease oxidation
    • decrease Na/I pump uptake
  75. What is the function of Propylthiouracil?
    • decrease coupling
    • decrease oxidation
    • decrease T4-T3 conversion via Thyroid deiodinase
  76. When are cortisol levels the highest?
    Early AM (start to increase during sleep)
  77. Other than insulin resistance and gluconeogenesis, what are five other functions of Cortisol?
    • maintain BP: Alpha-1 receptor
    • Anti-inflammation: Block IL-2
    • Antagonize Vit. D function: Inhibit Calcium reabsorption, demineralize b one
    • CNS: emotion, decrease REM, more awake
    • Fetal dev.: surfactant, GI tract
  78. What state are the ECF and K in to activate Aldosterone?
    • Low ECF
    • High Potassium
  79. What is the primary sign of Addison's disease?
    All three zones of cortex not producing (no cortisol, no aldosterone, no androgens)
  80. What is the diff b/t Cushing's syndrome and disease?
    • Syndrome: ACTH low, Cortisol high
    • Disease: ACTH high
  81. How does the Dex suppression test function?
    • Dex is an artificial Cortisol
    • In Cushing's syndrome, there is not ACTH to inhibit so Cortisol levels stay the same
    • In Cushing's disease, there is high ACTH so dex acts like extra Cortisol and will inhibit Cortisol and ACTH production
  82. What causes Cushing's Hypersecretion?
    • ACTH secreting tumor some where else in body
    • No treatment can decrease Cortisol or ACTH production
  83. What causes Conn's syndrome?
    Aldosterone secreting tumor
  84. How do you treat Conn's syndrome?
    • Spironolactone to inhibit Aldo
    • Remove tumor
  85. What is Androgenital syndrome?
    Too much androgen (DEHA and Androstenedione)
  86. What does Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibit?
    NE
  87. What does COMT inhibit?
    Epi
  88. What is Pheochromocytoma?
    Overproducing adrenal medulla causing abundance of Catecholamines
  89. What is the hormone of abundance and starvation?
    • abundance: insulin
    • starvation: glucagon (secreted with cortisol)
  90. What do the Beta, Alpha and Delta cells of Langerhan cells produce?
    • Beta = insulin
    • Alpha = Glucagon
    • Delta = Somatostatin
  91. What is measured to indicate insulin levels?
    C-Protein (b/c of long half life and short half-life of insulin)
  92. What is the normal ratio of Insulin:Glucagon?
    2

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